Friday, 24 July 2009

River Darent, Kent

The River Darent or River Darenth or Dartford Creek is a Kentish tributary of the River Thames in England. Its name is believed to be from a Celtic word meaning 'river where oak-trees grow' (compare "Derwent").
Fed by springs in the greensand hills south of Westerham in Kent and Limpsfield Chart in Surrey it flows for 21 miles (34 km) eastwards and then northwards past the villages of Otford and Shoreham, past the castle and ruined Roman villa at Lullingstone, past Eynsford, Farningham, Horton Kirby, South Darenth, Sutton-at-Hone, Darenth, and through the large town of Dartford. North of Dartford the Darent receives the waters of the River Cray from the west as it passes through Dartford Marshes and Crayford Marshes, where it forms a boundary between Greater London and Kent (and specifically, the London Borough of Bexley and the borough of Dartford).
The Darent joins the Thames near Crayford Ness.

As its name suggests, Dartford ('Tarentefort' in the Domesday Book) was once a fording place over the Darent where it crossed the road from London to the Kent coast. There are records of a ford operating in Roman times. A ferry, operated by a hermit, was established there by 1235. The post of hermit continued until 1518, long after the first bridge was built (a footbridge, constructed during the reign of Henry IV (1399-1413) and surviving until the mid-eighteenth century). The landscapes of the river's valley were painted in a visionary manner by the early Victorian artist Samuel Palmer.
The river is largely small and peaceful, a surprise given the breadth of the valley it has cut out. Apparently the 'proto-Darent' was formerly much larger than the present day but the River Medway, through erosion of the soft chalk and clays of the North Downs/Western Weald, has captured much of the headwaters that once supplied the Darent.
The river was used for trade and in 1835 approximately 50,000 to 60,000 tons per annum were being carried on the river. The size of the river limited single cargoes to 50 long tons (51 t) even on spring tides and as a result a ship canal was proposed. The proposal was unable to overcome its critics and as a result in 1839 an alternative based on dredging the river and a few short cuts was taken up. An Act of Parliament was passed in 1840 allowing construction to start and tolls to be levied once the work was complete. The project was completed in 1844 and included shortening the upper part of the navigation through the use of a cut and dredging.
The Darent flowing through Central Park,

Dartford European Kingfisher on the Darent at Lullingstone Castle

Fly fishing the Darenth, circa 1834.
By 1989 it was realised that the flow of the river was decreasing dramatically, when it was officially recognised as the 'lowest flow' river in the country. Wildlife was being destroyed. Since then much work has been carried out to rectify the situation, including shutting down of a number of boreholes along its length, by the Environment Agency. A sculpture was unveiled in 2004 to celebrate the renewed life of the river, depicting the wildlife which has been saved.

The River Darent powered a number of watermills.
From source to mouth they are:
Westerham (Elm View) Mill TQ 444 537
c.1912 The miller at this corn mill in 1771 was James Marchane, who was joined by his son James. James Jr died in 1805 and James Sr died c.1812. The mill was sketched by G. Samuel in 1818. It had an overshot waterwheel. The cast iron overshot waterwheel was 12 feet (3.66 m) by 2 feet 9.5 inches (0.85 m). It was fitted in 1868, replacing a wooden wheel which may have been breast shot. In 1890, the waterwheel was adapted to drive a set of pumps to supply Westerham. An average of 25,000 imperial gallons (110,000 l) could be supplied. The milling machinery was removed in 1936 and during the Second World War a doodlebug landed nearby and blew the roof of the mill off. The derelict building stood in April 1954, but had been demolished by July 1960.
Darenth (Tower Wood) Mill TQ 449 540
This corn mill had an external cast iron overshot waterwheel carried on a wooden axle. The mill was working up to the outbreak of the First World War and demolished in the 1930s. It had two pairs of millstones.
Squerryes (Spring Shaw) Mill, Westerham TQ 447 532
Squerryes, or Spring Shaw Mill was a corn mill with a cast iron overshot waterwheel some 9 feet (2.74 m) or 10 feet (3.05 m) diameter and 3 feet (0.91 m) wide. The mill was marked as disused on the 1895 6" Ordnance Survey map. It was a small building of 17 feet 6 inches (5.33 m) square and had been demolished by 1955. Little is known of the machinery except that the upright shaft was wooden and of 11.5 inches (290 mm) diameter. The wooden great spur wheel was of compass arm construction.
Valence Pump, Brasted TQ 461 535
This water powered pump was driven by a cast iron high breast shot waterwheel of 16 feet (4.88 m) by 3 feet 5 inches (1.04 m). A 6 feet (1.83 m) diameter cast iron spur geared pitwheel drove two ram pumps. The pump dated from 1858 and was still in existence in 1980.
Brasted Mill TQ 470 552
c.1909 This was a corn mill, now converted to a dwelling. The cast iron breast shot waterwheel was 13 feet (3.96 m) by 6 feet 6 inches (1.98 m). In September 1812, James Weight, miller of Brasted, was claiming relief for himself, his wife and five children. A man by the name of Staples who went by the name of Chapman had leased the mill in Brasted in 1812; he claimed relief in January 1815 The mill ceased work in the 1920s and the machinery was removed c1934.
Sundridge Mill TQ 489 556
This was a paper mill. In December 1822 Nicholas Tapsfield, papermaker of Sundridge was claiming relief for himself and his wife Mary. He had been apprenticed at a paper mill at East Malling. In December 1831, Thomas Green, papermaker of Sundridge was claiming relief for himself, his wife and five children. He had been apprenticed in 1804 to William Dacie at a paper mill in Bermondsey, then to a Mr Hall in St. Mary Cray when Dacie retired. In March 1832, Henry Sparks, papermaker of Sundridge was claiming relief for himself, wife Susanna and five children. He had been apprenticed to Messrs. Smith & Knight at Godalming in 1796, serving only four years. In May 1839, Henry Thomas, papermaker of Sundridge was claiming relief for himself. He had been a papermaker all his working life. The internal overshot waterwheel was 12 feet 6 inches (3.81 m) by 6 feet 3 inches (1.91 m), carried on an oak axle. Sundridge Mill produced paper for the Bank of England until its closure in 1901, business being transferred to Eynsford Paper Mill. The mill buildings were converted to a laundry, and the waterwheel was removed c1914 to be replaced by steam power. The mill was demolished in October 1969.
Chipstead Mill, Chevening TQ 499 560
Chipstead Mill was a four storey building which had been enlarged in the late C19th. It worked until after the Second World War, but the machinery had been removed by 1950. The waterwheel was overshot and drove two pairs of French Burr millstones. A steam engine provided auxiliary power until it was replaced by a 75 horsepower (56 kW) suction gas engine. Roller milling plant had been installed in the 1890s but milling ceased in the 1920s. The mill building was standing in the 1980s.
Longford Mill, Dunton Green TQ 513 568
This was a corn mill rebuilt by Weeks of Maidstone in 1859, it had an internal cast iron overshot waterwheel 7 feet (2.13 m) by 12 feet (3.66 m), which had probably replaced a breast shot waterwheel of larger diameter. The waterwheel drove three pairs of millstones. Electricity replaced water power between the wars, and the mill last worked in 1947. The stones of the mill were said to have been caused to run backwards at one time through the mill being bewitched. The mill drove three pairs of millstones, the machinery being mostly of cast iron. The mill building survived until 1987 when the site was redeveloped.
Otford Mill TQ 524 594
There was a watermill in Otford in 1541. The last mill on this site was a corn mill with two waterwheels. It was latterly used as a saw mill and burnt down on 7 January 1924. A picture of the mill can be seen here. The breastshot waterwheel remained in 1930. One waterwheel was of wood construction, driving three pairs of French Burr millstones and one pair of Peak millstones. The machinery was all wooden. The second waterwheel was of cast iron, driving two pairs of French Burr stones vis cast iron machinery.
Upper Mill, ShorehamTQ 520 610
This was a corn mill. Originally powered by an internal breast shot waterwheel of some 14 feet (4.27 m) by 6 feet (1.83 m) driving one pair of French Burr millstones and one pair of Peak millstones. The great spur wheel was a cast iron wheel with wooden cogs. The waterwheel had been replaced by a turbine which drove the millstones via a great spur wheel that was only 3 feet 3 inches (990 mm) diameter. The mill was house converted in 1971.
Lower (Shoreham Paper) Mill, Shoreham TQ 520 621
This was the site of a fulling mill belonging to Palsters Manor. It was bought by the Passele family in the fourteenth century. The manor passed to Francis Sandbach in 1578 and was willed to John Polhill. He bought the fulling mill in 1602. The last mill on the site was a paper mill; it was demolished in 1936. The low breast shot waterwheel was 16 feet (4.88 m) by 8 feet (2.44 m). It drove machinery via a layshaft driven from the spur geared pitwheel. The mill was demolished in the 1930s. The paper mill had been run for over 200 years by the Wilmot family.
Wood Mill, Eynsford TQ 531 648
Although it is said that this mill, which stood just downstream of Eynsford Bridge, was a corn mill with an undershot waterwheel other evidence shows this to have been a water powered saw mill which had been erected c1853. It may have stood on the site of an earlier mill.
Old Mill, Eynsford TQ 540 656
This was a corn mill. It stands immediately downstream of the bridge by Eynsford ford. The low breast shot waterwheel was 8 feet (2.44 m) diameter in 1887, being replaced by one of at least 10 feet (3.05 m) diameter. It was 10 feet (3.05 m) wide. The millstones were only 3 feet (910 mm) diameter, suggesting that only a limited amount of flour was available. The mill was working until 1911, no auxiliary power being used. The building was house converted in the 1920s and survives today.
Eynsford Paper Mill TQ 544 661
This paper mill was founded in 1648 by Hugenot refugees. The paper mill replaced an earlier corn mill. In 1882, it is recorded as having a waterwheel 18 feet 3 inches (5.56 m) by 8 feet (2.44 m). The mill suffered two fires in the 1900s but was rebuilt. It was working until 1952 but has now been demolished.
Farningham Mill TQ 545 70
A mill has been on this site since Domesday. In the fifteenth century the mill was in the possession of the Roper family, Sir Anthony Roper being charged with "pulling down and allowing the watermill to decay and become uninhabited" in 1636. He was ordered to rebuild the mill within two years. The present building built by the Colyers dates to c.1780. The mill was a corn mill; the converted building survives. A curious feature is that the door on the north side of the east face is painted on, to look symmetrical with the real door. The mill was latterly worked by a turbine which drove a saw mill in its final years of operation. The mill last worked for trade in 1900.
Franks Generating Station, Horton Kirby TQ 556 677
This installation was of late C19th date. A turbine drove a generating plant to provide elecricity to Franks Hall. After it ceased to be

Westminster Mill, Horton KirbyTQ 560 685

Westminster Mill

This was a corn mill which stood upstream of the paper mill. Henry Knight was a miller in Horton who died in 1724 and Thomas Welch was a miller in Horton who died in 1734. George Cannon took the mill in the early 1830s. In 1843 he was bankrupt as a common brewer, an occupation he carried on along with the mill. Ill health forced his retirement in 1852, and the mill was bought by his brother Stephen. His son, also Stephen, was running Old Mill from 1850, then being 14 years old. Stephen Cannon (father) died in 1872 and Stephen Cannon (son) sold Westminster Mill and Old Mill in order to concentrate the milling business at a mill in Bexley. Latterly the waterwheel was replaced by a turbine and the mill generated electricity. The mill burnt down when struck by lightning in 1908 and was rebuilt as a factory which made shoe laces. The factory closed down in 1991 and the mill has been demolished and the site redeveloped as housing.
Horton Kirby Paper Mill TQ 563 695
This mill is under the viaduct of the Chatham Main Line railway. In 1700 there were two corn mills and a forge here. The mill was rebuilt by Henry Hall in 1820 as a paper mill. Paper from this mill was used to print The Sphere and The Tatler; photographs of the paper making process at the mill were used in the first edition of The Children's Encyclopedia. Henry Hall was the proprietor in 1840. An illustration of the machine house c.1880 can be seen here. The mill has a chimney 230 feet (70 m) high, which is a listed building. The mill was last used as a factory and closed in 2003, with plans being put forward for conversion to housing use in 2005. The chimney dates to 1880.
Frog Lane Mill, Sutton at Hone TQ 559 696
This corn mill was of C19th date. The cast iron breast shot waterwheel was 10 feet (3.05 m) by 6 feet (1.83 m) carried on a 5 inches (130 mm) square axle. An unusual feature of this mill was that the pitwheel was the same diamter as the waterwheel. The mill had ceased working by 1914. The upper storeys of the mill were demolished in February 1936, leaving the brick base, waterwheel and some machinery. These had been cleared away by June 1965.
South Darenth Mill TQ 563 697
South Darenth Mill was a brick building that replaced an earlier mill that burnt down in 1879. This mill was run by the Cannon family. The mill had a cast iron waterwheel which drove three pairs of millstones. A steam engine provided auxiliary power. In 1894, roller milling plant was installed but milling ceased in 1905. The building was severely damaged in the Great Storm of 1987.
Darenth Paper Mill TQ 558 714
Darenth Paper Mill was working until 1931 when it was taken over by Messrs Portals Ltd, of Laverstoke, Hampshire. In 191o, it was in the occupation of Messrs T H Saunders & Co Ltd, also at Hawley Mills and Rye Mill, High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire. The breast shot waterwheel was of cast iron with wooden floats. It was12 feet (3.66 m) by 10 feet (3.05 m).

Sutton (Old, Sutton at Hone, Darenth Corn, Little Darenth) MillTQ 557 713

Old Mill‎.
This corn mill stood at Old Mill Farm. It was built by Thomas Edmeads in the early 1800s. In 1806 the tenant millers were Stephen and George Cannon. The Cannon brothers were declared bankrupt in May 1816 but discharged their debts and returned to milling. George Cannon was again declared bankrupt in 1823. Stephen Cannon had three sons William, George and Stephen. They all learnt the milling trade at his mill.
Stephen Cannon later bought the mill and it passed to his daughter Harriet on his death on 27 February 1856. The mill remained in the Cannon family until 1872, and the mill house until 1888. Latterly the mill had a steam engine and a tall chimney. During the First World War, a bomb hit the mill, but did not explode, although the mill was put out of action. The mill was demolished in September 1928. Photographs of the mill during demolition reveal the cast iron low breast shot waterwheel drove three pairs of millstones via a cast iron layshaft. The original wooden upright shaft and crown wheel were retained.
Hawley Mills, Sutton at Hone TQ 552 718
A site mentioned in Domesday, the mills here were held by the manor of Bignoures and belonged to the Knights of St. John in the Middle Ages, being let at a peppercorn rent to the Prioress of Dartford Nunnery. A wheat mill and a malt mill were released to one George Tasser in 1534. William Vaughan received them from the Crown in 1546 and the mills reverted to the Crown when he died in 1580. The two mills were granted to John Spilman (later Sir John Spilman) by the Crown in 1581.
In 1588, Spilman converted the corn mill into a paper mill, and obtained a monopoly for his paper by manipulating the favour and patronage of successive monarchs. Thomas Churchyard wrote a long poem in 1588, the first description of the papermaking process. Spielman employed 600 men, mainly Germans. The mills remained in the Spilman family until 1679, then a Mr Blackman was the owner in 1686 but he was bankrupt by 1739. Messrs. Pike and Edsall purchased the mill and converted it into a gunpowder mill.There were explosions here in 1745, 1790, 1795, 1796, 1799 and 1833. These killed at least forty people. Edsall went bankrupt in 1778 and the mills were purchased by Messrs Pigou and Andrews. The mill was a papermill by 1840, when William Wiggins was the owner.
The malt mill was not required by Spilman, and he leased it to Godfrey Box of Liège. He erected an iron rolling and slitting mill (for the manufacture of nails; the first in England) between 1590 and 1595, which by 1758 had two waterwheels, one working the upper roller, the other working the lower rollers and a guillotine. A company of "white paper makers" was established here in 1694 and during the eighteenth century the mill was owned by a Mr Quelch.

Dartford Powder Mills

The Powder Mills were in operation from c1730, possibly on the site of Spilman's paper mill of 1588. It was in operation until the C20th.
Lower Paper Mill, Dartford TQ 547 732
Lower Mill was built in the mid C17th, and closed in 1790. Later it was used as a zinc rolling mill and a printing works for silk and calico.

Victoria Mills, Dartford TQ 545 739

Victoria Mills c.1900
Victoria Mills stood on the site of a fifteenth century fulling mill and an old wire mill, mentioned by William Lambarde in 1570 as a glazing mill. This was used for polishing armoured plate. In the early nineteenth century there were three mills here; an oil mill, a mustard mill and a corn mill in the late eighteenth century it was owned by a Mr Fomereau and worked by the Loder family. The corn mill was a four storey wood structure built in 1790. In the early nineteenth century, miller James Hard was appointed miller to King George IV. It had a wrought iron breast shot waterwheel of 20' diameter driving four pairs of millstones.Colyers (Orchard's, Bridge, Acacia Hill) Mill, Dartford TQ 544 739
In 1217 King John granted a mill worth 100/- a year, situated in Dartford to Michael de Wallensi and in 1221 William, Prior of Rochester, granted to Alan Martel, Prior of the Knights Templars, half an acre of land by the mill. The mill belonged to the Bishop of Rochester in 1253 and in 1299 was known as Orchard's mill, being then privately owned. Henry Colyer was the miller in 1840.
The mill was later run by R & H Strickland Ltd, although milling ceased in 1893 and the building was stripped of its machinery, including a large cast iron waterwheel and a steam engine, in 1898. It then served as a social club for Messrs Burroughs Wellcome & Co. The mill burnt down on 24 January 1962.
Silk Printing Works, Dartford TQ 544 743
There was a silk printing works in Dartford which is said to have been powered by a waterwheel. It was said that the waterwheel had been "recently removed" in 1986 as part of a clearance programme for the section of river that the works stood on.
Phoenix Mill, Dartford TQ 544 745
This was the furthermost mill on the Darent. About 1650 one John Brown erected a "brassell" mill for splitting iron into rods and nails. Nicholas Tooke owned the mill in 1656 followed by Charles Mauum from 1687 to 1719 and then Messrs. Cooke and Coolson in 1779. The brassell mill gave way to a saw mill, then in 1790 a seven storey cotton mill was built. This burnt down in 1795 and a smaller building, the Phoenix Mill was erected in 1797. George Willding was the miller and Messrs Saunders and Harrison were mustard makers here in 1840. William Masters was a workman here until his death in 1873, and has a memorial in Horton Kirby church. It was a paper mill and closed in 1889.

Various tributaries feed into the River Darent. They also powered a number of watermills.

Stream at Brasted

Mill Farm Mill, Brasted TQ 468 554
Mill Farm Mill may have been built in 1705, which is the date of the Mill House. It was worked by the Smith family, ceasing work c1858. The 14 feet (4.27 m) by 3 feet (0.91 m) cast iron waterwheel and machinery were removed before the First World War. The building was standing in 1954, converted to a garage.
Whitley (Dibden) Mill, Chevening TQ 508 5633
This mill stood deep in woodland west of Sevenoaks. It was held by Ralph Bosville of Bradbourne Manor in the sixteenth century. The mill was in existence until at least the mid-nineteenth century but had ceased working by 1900. The overshot waterwheel of composite construction was carried on a wooden axle 9 feet 6 inches (2.90 m) long and 18 inches (460 mm) square at the waterwheel, 12 inches (300 mm) diameter in the mill. The mill was in ruins by the 1920.
Ightham Mill
A tributary rising near St. Cleres is reputed to have driven a watermill, possibly the one at Ightham recorded in 1322 as the property of William Inge.
Kemsing Mill TQ 543 586
This mill was on the tributary that drove the mill at Ightham. Kemsing is reputed to be the site of a Roman watermill at Springhead, which was excavated in 1949.
Greatness Mill, Sevenoaks
An old mill site, in 1381 a mill at Gretnarsche was in the possession of John Colepeper. The mills were later in the ownership of the Fane/Vane family, being known as "Gretness-mylls" in the 1550s, being two water corn mills. John Thorpe (miller?) was living at Greatness Mill at the time of his death in 1835. The building is of weatherboard on a steel frame on a brick base, replacing an earlier mill that burnt down after the First World War. The overshot waterwheel was 20 feet (6.10 m) by 4 feet 6 inches (1.37 m). It drove two pairs of French Burr millstones and one pair of Peak millstones. Roller milling plant had been fitted by 1906. In 1927, the mill was still worked by water power, aided by a 15 horsepower (11 kW) gas engine.
Greatness Silk Mill, Sevenoaks TQ 535 570
This mill was built in 1761 by Peter Nouaille, who came into the possession of the manorial watermill on marrying Elizabeth de la Mare of Greatness. It stood downstream of the corn mill. Nouaille went bankrupt in 1778 but recovered, employing 100 people when he retired in 1800. The mill had a breastshot waterwheel. It closed down after Nouaille's death c1828. The mills were immortalised in the poem Ode on the Silk Mills at Greatness by Joseph Harrison.
Childs Bridge Mill, Kemsing TQ 545 580
A long lost mill site, thought to have been a corn mill. The mill pond was some 400 yards (370 m) by 50 yards (46 m) in extent.
Longlodge Mill, Otford TQ 531 584
Possibly the site of one of Otford's eight Domesday mills. The mill was abandoned at an early date as it was not remembered in field names.
Bradbourne Mill, Sevenoaks
This was a corn mill. On 24 October 1545 Brodebourne Mill was granted by Henry VIII to William Darkenolde for 21 years at £6.13s.4d per annum. The King finding the timber for the repair of the mill. In 1557, Ralph Bosville bought the mill. In 1592, Henry Bosville died, leaving his manor of Bradbourne, and a "water grist mill" in the tenure of Richard Phillipes and a "Sythe Mill" in the occupation of Chapman amongst his property.
Hall's Engineering Works, Dartford TQ 542 745
Millwright John Hall built a cast iron waterwheel to replace a windmill that powered some of the machinery at his workshops in Hythe Street, Dartford.


Shoreham Bridge and the disused ford

There were a number of fords on the River Darent.
Shoreham TQ 5205 6165 51°19′59″N 0°10′59″E / 51.333127°N 0.182954°E / 51.333127; 0.182954
There was a ford by the bridge in the village.

Eynsford Ford

The still usable ford at Eynsford TQ 539 655 51°22′03″N 0°12′43″E / 51.367617°N 0.211823°E / 51.367617; 0.211823
Eynsford is famous for its ford by the old packhorse bridge.
There was a ford at Farningham, now replaced by a bridge.
There was a ford in Dartford in Roman times, Dartford being a contraction of Darent-ford. The ford was still in existence in 1840.

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