Friday, 24 July 2009

River Severn /Saefern: Place in Bernard Cornwell's Saxon Series ****

The River Severn (Welsh: Afon Hafren, Latin: Sabrina) is the longest river in Great Britain, at 220 miles (354 km).

Worcester Cathedral overlooking the River Severn

The Source of the River Severn at Plynlimon

The River Severn rises at Plynlimon near Llanidloes, Powys, in the Cambrian Mountains of mid Wales. It then flows through Shropshire, Worcestershire and Gloucestershire, with the county towns of Shrewsbury, Worcester, and Gloucester on its banks. With an average discharge of 107 m³/s at Apperley, Gloucestershire, the Severn is England's greatest river in terms of water flow, and is considered one of the ten major rivers of the United Kingdom.

The River Severn with its Bridges at the mouth

The river becomes the Severn Estuary after the Second Severn Crossing between Severn Beach, South Gloucestershire and Sudbrook, Monmouthshire. The river then discharges into the Bristol Channel which in turn discharges into the Celtic Sea and the wider Atlantic Ocean. The Severn's drainage basin area is 11,420 square kilometres (4,409 sq mi), excluding the River Wye and Bristol Avon which flow into the Bristol Channel. The major tributaries to the Severn are the Vyrnwy, Teme, Warwickshire Avon and Stour and it is connected by canal with the rivers Thames, Mersey and Trent.
"There is a gentle nymph not far from hence, That with moist curb sways the smooth Severn stream..." Milton, 'Comus'
According to some sources, the name "Severn" is derived from the name Sabrina (or Hafren), based on the mythical story of a nymph who drowned in the river. Sabrina is also the goddess of the River Severn in Brythonic mythology. The story of Sabrina is featured in Milton's Comus. There is a statue of 'Sabrina' in the Dingle Gardens at the Quarry, Shrewsbury.
As the Severn becomes tidal the associated deity changes to Noadu (Romanized as Nodens), who is represented mounted on a seahorse, riding on the crest of the Severn bore.
River Worfe joins the Severn, just above Bridgnorth.
The River Worfe at Ryton, Shropshire

The River Severn at High Town, Bridgnorth

The River Stour rising on the Clent Hills and flowing through Halesowen, Stourbridge, and Kidderminster, joins the Severn at Stourport. On the opposite bank, the tributaries are only brooks, Borle Brook, Dowles Brook draining the Wyre Forest and Dick Brook.

Tributary rivers

Map of the River Stour Worcestershire and its valley

The River Stour rises in the north of Worcestershire in the Clent Hills, near St Kenelm's Church at Romsley. It flows north into the adjacent West Midlands at Halesowen. It then flows westwards through Cradley Heath and Stourbridge where it leaves the Black Country. It is joined by the Smestow Brook at Prestwood before it winds around southwards to Kinver, and then flows back into Worcestershire. It then passes through Wolverley, Kidderminster and Wilden to its confluence with the Severn at Stourport-on-Severn.

The River Vyrnwy, which begins at Lake Vyrnwy, flows eastwards through Powys before forming the border between England and Wales, joining the Severn near Melverley, Shropshire. The Rea Brook flows north from its source in the Shropshire Hills and joins the Severn at Shrewsbury.

The River Tern, after flowing south from Market Drayton and being joined by the River Roden, meets the Severn at Attingham Park.

The River Tern at Longdon- on-Tern

River Teme at Ludlow Bridge

The River Teme flows eastwards from its source in Mid Wales, straddling the border between Shropshire and Herefordshire, it is joined by the River Onny, River Corve and River Rea before it finally joins the Severn slightly downstream of Worcester.
River Avon at Stratford-upon-Avon

One of the several rivers named Avon, in this case the Warwickshire Avon, flows west through Rugby, Warwick and Stratford-upon-Avon.

River Arrow at Alcester

It is then joined by its tributary the River Arrow, before finally joining the Severn at Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire.

Bristol Harbour, Tall Ships Race

The port of Bristol is located on the Severn Estuary, where another River Avon flows into it through the Avon Gorge.

The River Wye at Lancat and Ban-Y-Gore Nature Reserve

The River Wye, from its source in Plynlimon, Wales, flows generally south east through the Welsh towns of Rhayader and Builth Wells.

River Wye at Ross-on Hay
It enters Herefordshire, flows through Hereford, and is shortly afterwards joined by the River Lugg, before flowing through Ross-on-Wye and Monmouth, and then southwards where it forms the boundary between England (Forest of Dean) and Wales. It flows into the Severn near the town of Chepstow, slightly upstream of the Bristol Avon on the opposite bank.

The River Usk flows into the Severn Estuary just south of Newport.

The River Usk at Abergavenny, Wales

Major settlements

The source of the River Severn on Plynlimon, Wales.

The source is marked with this post in both English and Welsh.

Below is a list of major towns and cities that the Severn flows through (from north to south):
Through Powys: Newtown, Welshpool
Through Shropshire: Shrewsbury (county town) Ironbridge, Bridgnorth
Through Worcestershire: Bewdley, Stourport, Worcester (county town) and Upton
Through Gloucestershire: Tewkesbury, Gloucester (county town)


The Welsh Bridge (background) and Frankwell Footbridge (foreground) in Shrewsbury, Shropshire.

The Severn is bridged at many places, and many of these bridges are notable in their own right, with several designed and built by the engineer Thomas Telford. There also is the famous Iron Bridge at Ironbridge, which was the world's first iron arch bridge.

Famous Ironbridge in Shropshire

The two bridges of the Severn crossing carrying roads link to Wales with the southern counties of England and are among the most important in Britain.
Severn Bridge — opened in 1966 carrying the M48 The Second Severn Crossing — opened in 1996 carrying the M4 motorway Previous to the construction of the first bridge in 1966, the channel was crossed by the Aust Ferry.

Disasters Tewkesbury during the 2007 floods

There have been many disasters on the Severn, making it Britain's most dangerous river. It has claimed many lives (figures vary depending on how it is recorded, circa 300 people), especially during the 20th century.


River Severn Boating Map

There is a public right of navigation between Pool Quay, near Welshpool, and Stourport. However this stretch of the river has little traffic, other than small pleasure boats, canoes and some tour boats in towns such as Shrewsbury and Worcester. Below Stourport, where the river is more navigable for larger craft, users must obtain permits from British Waterways, who are the navigation authority.

Gloucester Docks mark the Normal Tidal Limit (NTL) of the river.

In the tidal section of the river below Gloucester, the Gloucester Harbour Trustees are the competent harbour authority.

Narrow Boat on the Severn

There are locks on the lower Severn to enable sea going boats to reach as far as Stourport. The most northerly lock is at Lincombe, about a mile downstream from Stourport.
The Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal, the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, and the Herefordshire and Gloucestershire Canal all join the Severn at Stourport, Worcester and Gloucester respectively. The Droitwich Barge Canal used to join the Severn at Hawford, near to the River Salwarpe.

Paddle steamers
The main operator of pleasure craft and particularly paddle steamers on the river from the mid 19th century to the late 1970s were P and A Campbell of Bristol, but also included the Barry Railway Company. There were also three ferries operating between Aust and Chepstow these were called the Severn King, Severn Queen and Severn Princess. The Severn Princess is currently undergoing restoration after being found in Ireland full of fertiliser, after dragging her back with her sinking twice on the way it is hoped that at some time in the near future she will be fully operational again. The Severn King and Queen were scrapped not long after their decommission following the completion of the First Severn Bridge.
In Worcester, the Worcester River Cruises have boat trips up and down the river operating the boats The Pride of the Midlands and The Earl Grosvenor. After 2008 there are plans for another boat, The Severn Travellor, to be refurbished and relaunched for trips.
In Shrewsbury, boat trips around the loop of the town centre are at present provided by the Sabrina and depart from Victoria Quay near the Welsh Bridge during the summer.

Severn Estuary

The Severn's Meander

The River Severn extends down to the Second Severn Crossing. The Severn Estuary begins at this point and stretches to a line from Lavernock Point (south of Cardiff) to Sand Point near Weston-super-Mare. West of this line is the Bristol Channel. In the Severn Estuary (or the Bristol Channel in the last two cases, depending where the boundary is drawn) are the rocky islands called Denny Island, Steep Holm and Flat Holm.

Severn bore

Bore hitting the riverbank in 1994

A curious phenomenon associated with the lower reaches of the Severn is the tidal bore. The Severn bore forms somewhat upstream of the Port of Sharpness, which is also the Southern terminus of the Gloucester and Sharpness Canal.
The river's estuary, which empties into the Bristol Channel, has the second largest tidal range in the world — about 15 metres (49 ft), exceeded only by the Bay of Fundy ; and during the highest tides, the rising water is funnelled up the estuary into a wave that travels rapidly upstream against the river current. The largest bores occur in spring, but smaller ones can be seen throughout the year. The Environment Agency publishes timetable and prediction of bore heights on its website. Being the onset of the flood tide it is accompanied by a rapid rise in water level which continues for about one and a half hours after the bore has passed. The Severn Bore is a natural example of a self-reinforcing solitary wave or soliton.
River surfing enthusiasts even attempt to surf along on the wave, which can be 2 metres (7 ft). In March 2006, an unofficial record surf was achieved, for the longest-ever 'surf', by Steve King, a railway engineer from Gloucestershire, England. Despite the media acceptance of the record the exact distance of the ride was never verified and the record was later rejected by both the British Surfing Association and Guinness World Records. The Gloucester Harbour Trustees, as competent harbour authority for this part of the river, explicitly advise against this pastime.
In September 2005, several hundred surfers gathered in Newnham on Severn to celebrate 50 years since the first recorded attempt at surfing the Severn Bore and to view the première of Longwave by Donny Wright, a historical film documenting the evolution of the sport since its inception in 1955.
Tidal power
Diagram of a plan to harness tidal power on the Severn River circa 1921.

Plans for a Severn Barrage — running 16 km (10 miles) across the Bristol Channel from Lavernock Point near to and south west of Cardiff to Brean Down near and just south west of Weston-super-Mare in Somerset — would generate a massive 8640 MW when the tide flows, and have been discussed for several decades now. The power generated would come from a lake of 185 square miles (479 km2) with a potential energy depth of 14 metres (46 ft). Tidal power only runs for around ten hours a day, but by using the enclosed lake as a reservoir of potential energy more hours of operation could be achieved. Other energy sources, such as wind and solar power, also create electricity at times that do not always match when it is needed. Excess power could be stored by pumping water uphill, as is already done at a variety of other installations in the UK.

Suggestions for Barriers on the Severn

The UK Government shelved the plans in the late 1980s due largely to cost issues and local environmental concerns. However, this was before recent huge rises in the price of energy, and before Global Warming had started to be taken seriously. In April 2006 the Welsh Assembly approved the idea of utilising the tidal power, but the RSPB has raised serious concerns about the effect on the mud flats, that have European Environmental protection status, and the UK government Energy Review published later in the year did not endorse the scheme. Opinion is still divided on the benefits of a proposed barrage. John Hutton, Secretary of State for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, announced a further feasibility study on 25 September 2007. The proposal for a hydro-electric barrier to generate 8.6 GW and meet five percent of Britain's power needs, is being opposed by environmental groups.
A 6 mile (10 km) stretch in Shropshire, known as Ironbridge Gorge, was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986. Its historic importance is due to its role as the centre of the iron industry in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution. Ironbridge gets its name from the bridge across the Severn, built in 1779, which was the first cast-iron arch bridge ever constructed.

River Severn at Shrewsbury Castle

The sides of the estuary are also important feeding grounds for waders, notably at the Bridgwater Bay National Nature Reserve and the Slimbridge Wildfowl Trust.

Literary allusions
The River Severn is named several times in A.E. Housman's A Shropshire Lad (1896): “It dawns in Asia, tombstones show/And Shropshire names are read;/And the Nile spills his overflow/Beside the Severn’s dead” (“1887”); “Severn stream” (“The Welsh Marches”); and “Severn shore” (“Westward from the high-hilled plain…”).

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