Monday, 13 July 2009

Somerset Rivers 2

The River Exe / Uisc ***in England rises near the village of Simonsbath, on Exmoor in Somerset, near the Bristol Channel coast, but flows more or less directly due south, so that most of its length lies in Devon. It reaches the sea at a substantial ria, the Exe Estuary, on the south (English Channel) coast of Devon. Historically, its lowest bridging point was at Exeter, though there is now a viaduct for the M5 motorway about 3 km south of the city centre.
The river's name derives from the Celtic word Isca meaning, simply, water. The river gives its name to the city of Exeter and many other settlements along its course, including Exford, Up Exe, Nether Exe, Exwick, Exton, Exminster, and Exebridge, where it is joined by the River Barle. The seaside town of Exmouth is at the east side of the estuary mouth, and Dawlish Warren is at the west, with its long sand spit extending across the mouth.
The river fuelled Exeter's growth and relative importance in medieval times and the city's first industrial area was developed at Exe Island, created by a series of leats to the west of the city. The island was home to numerous watermills producing paper and textiles; it also created valuable land through drainage of the marshlands.
Tides on the river are limited at Countess Wear, the site of a weir commissioned by the Countess of Devon in the 13th century. The Exeter Canal bypasses this weir to enable ships to reach Exeter Quay. At high tide, the estuary forms a large body of water that is heavily used for water sports especially sailing, windsurfing and water skiing.
Railways run along both sides of the estuary. The Avocet Line from Exeter to Exmouth on the eastern side, and the South Devon main line on the western. The latter is on a causeway, the South Devon Railway sea wall from Powderham to Dawlish Warren. The Exmouth to Starcross Ferry carries passengers across the mouth of the estuary during the summer months, linking the harbour at Exmouth with a pier adjacent to Starcross railway station on the South Devon main line.

Powderham Estuary of the River Uisc

At low tide, extensive mud flats are exposed, and these are an important feeding source for wading birds. Along with other rias in South West England, the Exe estuary is an important site for wintering waders. Dawlish Warren is a favoured site for birdwatching. The river is acidic and populated with wild brown trout and some grayling, the average size being 8-10 oz. Unlike many West Country rivers there are no seatrout, but there is a run of atlantic salmon. Just 150 metres below the union of the River Barle is one of the best, and highest salmon pools on the river: Black Pool.

Witham Friary, source of the river Frome

The River Frome is a river in Somerset. It rises near Witham Friary, flows north through the town of Frome and joins the River Avon at Freshford, south of Bath.
There are many weirs on the river. Several stretches, particularly below Farleigh Hungerford are used for coarse fishing and some trout fishing.
In April 2007 the Mendip Power Group started electricity generation at Tellisford Mill, and it is ultimately expected to produce 75 kW.

The River Haddeo on Exmoor in Somerset flows from the Wimbleball Lake to the River Exe. The valley of the river consists of three tributary valleys extending down from the surrounding farmland to merge with the River Haddeo in the south. The tributary valleys include the River Pulham, which passes the village of Brompton Regis and continues to Hartford where it joins the Haddeo.
In 2001 - 2002 South West Water commissioned a detailed assessment of fish population, physical habitat, flow and water quality data within the River Haddeo, since it has been subject to regulated releases from Wimbleball Reservoir, to identify potential bottlenecks restricting the development of juvenile salmon populations

Hoar Oak Water is a moorland tributary of the East Lyn River in Exmoor, Somerset.
It rises at Hoaroak Hill in Somerset and flows to Watersmeet in Devon.

The Hoar Oak waterfalls running into Watersmeet

The River Holford is located in the east Quantocks hills.
Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty in Somerset.
It is approximately 4.5 miles (7 km) long. Its source is at Lady's Fountain Spring, Frog Combe ST150384 which is near Halsway and 250 m above sea level before flowing past Holford towards its mouth at Kilve ST143444.
The river is used as an outdoor classroom for students of Fluvial Geomorphology.
The geology of the river consists of three different rock types at the top of the river there is the Devonian Quartzite(Metamorphic), in the middle of the river there is the Permo-Triassic Marl(Sedimentary) and the lower part of the river consists of Jurassic Limestone(Sedimentary). The first two rock types are impermeable meaning there is little drainage for the river but the river depth becomes smaller as the water flows over the permeable limstone which will allow water to pass through. Quartzite is also very resistant to chemical weathering and can form ridges.

The River Horner also known as Horner Water rises near Luccombe on Exmoor, Somerset, Devon, and flows past Porlock into Porlock Bay near Hurlestone point on the Bristol Channel.
Horner water is a lake which is used in CourseWork

The River Huntspill (or Huntspill River) is an artificial river, in the Somerset Levels, in the Sedgemoor district of Somerset, England.
The river was excavated as a five mile long straight channel using a dragline during the early years of World War II. It was constructed as a priority war work. Its main function was to provide an all year-round guaranteed supply of 4.5 million gallons per day of process water for ROF Bridgwater, the Royal Ordnance Factory near Puriton. It was also intended to help drain parts of the lower Brue Valley. It was connected to the South Drain at Gold Corner. It implemented parts of a drainage plan for the Somerset Levels first drawn up in 1853 but not implemented until World War II.
The Huntspill River has retention sluices at both ends, so that it acts as a long reservoir. In winter flood water can be removed by gravity drainage; and in summer it can be topped up by pumping water from the moors.
The Huntspill River is a National Nature Reserve, which is managed by the Environment Agency, rather than by Natural England, who are responsible for most of the other reserves in England. This arrangement is authorised by section 35 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, and funding for the maintenance and upkeep of the river as a reserve is still provided by Natural England. The river discharges into the River Parrett just south of Highbridge. The Parrett flows into Bridgwater Bay, which is also an important National Nature Reserve, on the edge of the Bristol Channel.

The River Isle (also known as the River Ile) flows from its source near Ilminster, through Somerset a and discharges into the River Parrett south of Langport near Midelney

Midford Brook is a small river in Somerset, England.
It is formed by convergence of the Wellow Brook and Cam Brook at Midford before joining the River Avon close to the Dundas Aqueduct and the remains of the Somerset Coal Canal.

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