Monday, 17 August 2009

Carlisle /Cair Ligualid: Place in Bernard cornwell's saxon Series ****



The City of Carlisle (pronounced /kɑrˈlaɪl/), is a local government district of Cumbria, England, with the status of a city and non-metropolitan district. It is named after its largest settlement, Carlisle, but covers a far larger area which includes the towns of Brampton and Longtown, as well as outlying villages including Dalston, Scotby and Wetheral. The city has a population of 100,739, and an area of 402 square miles (1,041 km2), making it the largest city in England by area (although the majority of its territory is not urbanised, but rural).
The current city boundaries were set as part of the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972, and cover an amalgamation of two former local government districts—the City and County Borough of Carlisle and the Border Rural

Carlisle a District of Cumberland.
The City of Carlisle shares a common border with Scotland (to the north), and is bounded on the southwest by the borough of Allerdale, and on the south by Eden. The county of Northumberland is to the east.
Although a 20th century creation, the city traces its origins to a 1st-century Roman outpost associated with Hadrian's Wall. The Brythonic settlement that expanded from this outpost was destroyed by the Danes in 875. Thereafter the region formed part of the Southern Uplands of Scotland, until colonised under King William II of England in 1092. William II built Carlisle Castle, which houses a military museum. Carlisle Cathedral, founded in the 12th century, is one of the smallest in England.
A border city, and the most northerly in England, Carlisle predominantly spans the flood plain of the River Eden. Commercially, it is linked to the rest of England via the M6 motorway, and to the Scottish Lowlands via the A74(M) and M74 motorways.

History
Following both the Local Government Act 1888 and Local Government Act 1894, local government in England had been administered via a national framework of rural districts, urban districts, municipal boroughs and county boroughs, which (apart from the latter which were independent), shared power with strategic county councils of the administrative counties. The areas that were incorporated into the City of Carlilse in 1974 had formed part of the Border Rural District from the administrative county of Cumberland, and the politically independent County Borough of Carlisle.
After the exploration of reform during the mid-20th century, such as the proposals made by the Redcliffe-Maud Report in the late 1960s, the Local Government Act 1972 restructured local government in England by creating a system of two-tier metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties and districts throughout the country. The act formally established the City of Carlisle as a local government district of the new shire county of Cumbria on 1 April 1974. The new dual local authorities of Carlisle City Council and Cumbria County Council had been running since elections in 1973 however. The leading article in The Times on the day the Local Government Act came into effect noted that the "new arrangement is a compromise which seeks to reconcile familiar geography which commands a certain amount of affection and loyalty, with the scale of operations on which modern planning methods can work effectively".

Geography

River Eden



The City of Carlisle is located at the extreme north of North West England. It encompasses Cumbria's county town, Carlisle, and its surrounding rural hinterland, which together total 402 square miles (1,041 km2), making the city the largest in England by area. Although 70% of the city's 100,750 people live in central Carlisle, 98% of the city's land use is rural.

The city is traversed by several major rivers, including the Caldew, Eden, and Petteril, and is bisected by the M6, A74(M) and M74 motorways.



River Caldew flooding at Boudest Grassing








Along the City of Carlisle's northern extent is the Solway Firth, which forms the western section of the Anglo-Scottish border, and thus divides the city from Dumfries and Galloway, one of the council areas of Scotland. To the east is the English county of Northumberland; to the south is the district of Eden and to the west and south-west the borough of Allerdale, both in the county of Cumbria.
Much of the city spans the flood plain of the River Eden resulting in large parts of the district being vulnerable to flooding. Two further tributaries, the Petteril and Caldew nearly surround the historic walled centre.

Carlisle (pronounced /ˈkɑrlaɪl/) is the county town of Cumbria, and the major settlement of the wider City of Carlisle in North West England. Carlisle is located at the confluence of the rivers Eden, Caldew and Petteril, 10 miles (16 km) south of the Scottish border. It is the largest settlement in the county of Cumbria, and serves as the administrative centre for both Carlisle City Council and Cumbria County Council. At the time of the 2001 census, the population of Carlisle was 71,773, with 100,734 living in the wider city.
Historically the county town of Cumberland, the early history of Carlisle is marked by its status as a Roman settlement, established to serve the forts on Hadrian's Wall. During the Middle Ages, because of its proximity to the Kingdom of Scotland, Carlisle became an important military stronghold; Carlisle Castle, still relatively intact, was built in 1092 by William Rufus, and having once served as a prison for Mary, Queen of Scots. The castle now houses the Duke of Lancaster's Regiment and the Border Regiment Museum. In the early 12th century Henry I allowed the foundation of a priory in Carlisle. The town gained the status of a diocese in 1122, and the priory became Carlisle Cathedral.
The introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution began a process of socioeconomic transformation in Carlisle, developing into a densely populated mill town. This combined with its strategic position allowed for the development of Carlisle as an important railway town, with seven railway companies sharing Carlisle railway station.
Nicknamed the Border City, Carlisle today is the main cultural, commercial and industrial centre for north Cumbria. It is home to the main campuses of the University of Cumbria and a variety of museums and heritage centres. The former County Borough of Carlisle had held city status until the Local Government Act 1972 was enacted in 1974.

Toponymy


Tullie House Museum



The Romans called their settlement at what is today Carlisle, Luguvalium, as evidenced by Roman writing tablets recently excavated and displayed at Tullie House Museum, bearing this name as the address. Luguvalium can be interpreted from Latin as "the place, or wall (stronghold ?) of Lugus" (a local deity). Around the 11th and 12th centuries, however, surviving documents show the place name spelt Caer (castle) Luel or Llewelyn. Luel, and its variants are Cumbric personal names, and it has been proposed that this was always the basis of the local name, which had been preserved by the continuity of Cumbric-speaking peoples in the area, from before the Roman imposition of a Latinised version. The fact that Cumbria (from Cymru or similar roots) was held by the Celtic kings of Rheged in the 9th century may have stimulated a revival of the Cumbric language and reinstatement of earlier Celtic place-names. Cumbric is no longer spoken, but the surviving Welsh language has "Caerliwelydd" as the modern name for Carlisle.

Carlisle Cathedral
Carlisle has a compact historic centre, including a castle, museum, cathedral, and semi-intact city walls. The former law courts or citadel towers which now serve as offices for Cumbria County Council are also of architectural interest.





Roman Carlisle

Around AD 72/73, a Roman timber fort was built at Carlisle. Following its demolition around AD 103 to 105, a second timber fort was built. In AD 165 this fort was replaced by a stone fort. It was probably later the civitas capital of the Carvetii tribe.

Later history
Because Carlisle was sometimes the last town in England before Scotland, and sometimes the last town in Scotland before England, in the days when the two countries were separate kingdoms, it developed importance as a military stronghold, and Carlisle Castle is still relatively intact. Built in 1092 by William Rufus, and having once served as a prison for Mary, Queen of Scots.



Carlisle Castle



In December 1745 Prince Charles Edward Stuart captured Carlisle after the Siege of Carlisle. During the retreat of Charles Edward Stuart's Jacobites in 1746 he ordered that the Manchester Regiment be left to garrison Carlisle so that he "continued to hold at least one town in England". The Hanoverian army under Cumberland then besieged and took Carlisle.
The Tullie House Museum, an award-winning museum, tells the story of the Border country, including much material on Hadrian's Wall, the Roman defensive structure the course of which runs through the Stanwix area of Carlisle, and many items of Roman architecture. It also features an exhibit explaining the history of the Border Reivers. Tullie House used to house an excellent lending and reference library, but that has now been placed on the upper level of The Lanes. (The Lanes are Carlisle's main shopping area in the city centre). Carlisle Cathedral has the largest east window of any cathedral in Europe, but the western end of the cathedral was demolished by Oliver Cromwell to shore up the castle. Carlisle also has a first-class racetrack, located to the south of the city centre.
In 1916, during World War I, the government took over all the public houses and breweries in Carlisle because of endemic drunkenness among construction and munitions workers from the nearby munitions factory at Gretna. This experiment in nationalised brewing known first as the Carlisle Board of Control then after the war the Carlisle & District State Management Scheme lasted until 1971.


President Woodrow Wilson visited Carlisle in 1918.


RAF Carlisle
RAF Carlisle also known as 14 MU was located at Kingstown near the present day Asda. The station closed in 1996 after nearly sixty years in a variety of roles. First established as RAF Kingstown in 1938, it was originally a bomber station, then one of the RAF's Elementary Flying Training Schools and latterly a post war storage facility.

Royal Observer Corps, Carlisle Group
During the Second World War the air raid warning organisation No 32 Group Carlisle Royal Observer Corps operated from a building in the city centre although it was controlled administratively from RAF Kingstown. The association with Kingstown developed further in 1962 when the ROC ceased its aircraft spotting role for the RAF and took on a new role of plotting nuclear explosions and warning the public of approaching radioactive fallout for the UKWMO. A new administration building and a protected, hardened Nuclear Reporting bunker was built at RAF Carlisle. The nuclear bunker was a standard above-ground structure and both the bunker and Headquarters hutting stood on a separate site at Crindledyke just outside the main gates of RAF Carlisle and roughly opposite the station's officers mess. The Carlisle group was redesignated no 22 Group ROC.
The ROC also constructed a smaller nuclear reporting post called Kingstown post (OS ref:NY 3837 5920), on the main RAF Carlisle site. The post was also an underground protected bunker but designed for a crew of three observers. The headquarters bunker accommodated an operational crew of around 100 with dormitory and canteen facilities included with the operations room and life support plant.
The Royal Observer Corps and its parent organisation the United Kingdom Warning and Monitoring Organisation were disbanded in December 1995 after the end of the Cold War and as a result of recommendations in the governments Options for Change review of UK defence. The ROC buildings were demolished in 1996 and replaced by a cellphone communications mast. The foundations of the nuclear bunker can still be partially seen outlined in the concreted yard, which also contains the Air Training Corps hut during recent further development of the site.

Historical


Map of Numbered Parishes


1. Arthuret 2. Askerton 3. Beaumont 4. Bewcastle
5. Brampton 6.Burgh by Sands 7.Burtholme 8.Carlatton and Cumrew 9.Castle Carrock and Geltsdale 10.Cummersdale 11.Cumwhitton 12.Dalston 13.Farlam 14.Hayton 15.Hethersgill 16.Irthington 17.Kingmoor 18.Kingwater 19.Kirkandrews-on-Esk 20.Kirklinton 21.Middle Midgeholme 22.Nether Denton 23.Nicholforest 24.Orton 25.Rockcliffe
26.St Cuthbert Without 27.Scaleby 28.Solport and Stapleton 29.Stanwix 30.Rural Upper Denton 31.Walton Waterhead 32.Westlinton 33.Wetheral
red marks Unparished area of Carlisle


Carlisle has held city status since the Middle Ages and has been a borough constituency or parliamentary borough for centuries at one time returning two MPs. In 1835 it became a municipal borough which was promoted to county borough status in 1914. The city's boundaries have changed at various times since 1835 the final time being in 1974 when under the Local Government Act 1972 the city and county borough merged with the Border Rural District to become the new enlarged City of Carlisle, a non-metropolitan district of Cumbria.
The borough originally had several civil parishes or parts of parishes within it but these were all merged into a single civil parish of Carlisle in 1904. The present day urban area is now classed as an unparished area except for the fringes which are in Stanwix Rural, Kingmoor and St Cuthbert Without parishes.
Carlisle unsuccessfully applied to become a Lord Mayoralty in 2002.
Carlisle City Council is based in a 1960s building known as the Civic Centre in Rickergate. An iconic building and tallest in Carlisle, it may soon be demolished and the surrounding area regenerated.


Geography
A welcome sign deep within the City of Carlisle, at Carlisle proper, distinguishing the two.

Carlisle is situated on a slight rise, in the Cumberland Ward, at the confluence of the rivers Eden, Caldew, and Petteril.
An important centre for trade, it is located 56 miles (90 km) west of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 71 miles (114 km) north of Lancaster, 90 miles (140 km) south of Glasgow, 93 miles (150 km) south-west of Edinburgh, 120 miles (190 km) north-west of York, and 300 miles (480 km) north-north-west of London, at 54°52’N, 2°50’W. Nearby towns and villages include Longtown (North), Penrith (South) Brampton (East), Wigton (West), Haggbeck, Harker, Carwinley, Blackford, Houghton, Scotby and Rockcliffe.

Penrith





Newcastle Bridge





Lancaster from Lune Bank







York






Edinburgh





Glasgow






Climate
In January 2005 Carlisle was hit by strong gales and heavy rain, and on Saturday 8 January 2005 all roads into Carlisle were closed owing to severe flooding, the worst since 1822, which caused three deaths

Divisions and suburbs
To the far north of Carlisle lie the suburban areas of Kingstown, Lowry Hill and Moorville, all formerly part of the parish of Kingmoor. To the south of these areas are Stanwix, Edentown, Etterby St Anns Hill and Belah which were added to Carlisle in 1912. The parish of Stanwix Rural still exists but only includes a very small part of Carlisle's urban area.
To the immediate south of Stanwix lies the River Eden. On the opposite bank of this is the historic city centre of Carlisle which is bounded on the west by the West Coast Main Railway line and the River Caldew. In the past the main industries of Carlisle flourished on the banks of the River Caldew, especially the Denton Holme, Caldewgate area on the west side and Wapping (the area round the former Metal Box works) on the east bank. West of Caldewgate and north of Denton Holme the suburbs of Newtown, Morton, Sandsfield Park, Longsowerby, Raffles and Belle Vue developed in the late 19th and 20th centuries.
The east side of the city centre developed in the 19th century into a more affluent area than the west along what is now the main A69 road. This links up with the former separate village of Botcherby to which a large council estate was added in the mid 20th century and later still the Durranhill Housing Estate.
To the south of the city centre lies the Botchergate/St Nicholas area of late Victorian terraced housing similar to that found in Denton Holme and Caldewgate. The Botchergate East area did until fairly recently have some older "slum" dwellings.
To the south west of Botchergate and St Nicholas lie the former villages and now suburban areas of Upperby and Currock. The urban area spills over the former county borough boundary and includes the areas of Blackwell and Durdar within the civil parish of St Cuthbert Without.
Between Upperby and Botcherby lies another former village that was once part of St Cuthbert Without and is now probably the largest suburb of Carlisle namely Harraby. This is subdivided into many estates/areas including Harraby East, New Harraby, Harraby Green, Old Harraby, Petteril Bank and the Durranhill Industrial Estate. Adjoining Harraby to the south but outside the former borough boundary is the hamlet of Carleton.

Trade and industry
Carlisle became an industrial city in the 19th and early 20th centuries with many textile mills, engineering works and food manufacturers opening up mostly in the Denton Holme, Caldewgate and Wapping areas which lie in the Caldew Valley area of Carlisle. (One such manufacturer located in the Denton Holme area was Ferguson Printers, a large textile printing factory that had stood for many years before its unfortunate closure in the early 1990s). In the early 19th century a canal was dug connecting Caldewgate with the sea at Port Carlisle. The canal was later filled in and became a railway line.
Famous firms that were founded or had factories in Carlisle included Carr's of Carlisle (now part of United Biscuits), Kangol, Metal Box (now part of Crown Holdings). The Carr's and Metal Box factories are still going. The construction firm of John Laing and the hauliers Eddie Stobart Ltd. were also founded in Carlisle.
Until 2004, Carlisle's biggest employer was Cavaghan & Gray, part of Northern Foods which operated from two sites in the Harraby area of Carlisle producing chilled foods for major supermarket chains. As of January 2005, the London Road site was closed with the loss of almost 700 jobs as production was transferred to the nearby Eastern Way site or other factories around the UK.

Carlisle also became a major railway centre with at one time 7 different companies using Carlisle Citadel railway station. Prior to the building of the Citadel Station, Carlisle had several railway stations, including London Road station. Carlisle also used to have the largest railway marshaling yard in Europe at Kingmoor, now closed.
There are various light industrial estates and business parks located on the fringes of Carlisle and on former industrial sites close to the city centre.
On March 28, 2005, Carlisle was granted Fairtrade City status.

Curse of Carlisle
The Curse of Carlisle is a 16th century curse that was first invoked by Archbishop Dunbar of Glasgow in 1525 against cross-border families, known as the Border Reivers, who lived by stealing cattle and pillage. The curse was not directly aimed at Carlisle or its people. For the millennium celebrations, the local council commissioned a 14-tonne granite artwork inscribed with all 1,069 words of the curse.
In 1998 some Christians, among other projects, began campaigning to prevent the City of Carlisle from installing the stone. In the wake of this controversy, superstition about the stone grew and a number of the town's setbacks were blamed on the curse stone, including an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease, a flood, various crimes, rising unemployment statistics and even the fate of Carlisle United, which was relegated out of its league.
In March 2005, Liberal Democrat city councillor Jim Tootle, on the request of a Christian citizen, proposed the stone either be moved outside the city boundaries or destroyed altogether. Kevin Carlyon, the self-titled "high priest of the British white witches" and the "Living God of all Witches", proclaimed that such actions would give the curse more power. He commented that: "A curse can only work if people believe in it. I think at the moment the sculpture is a nice piece of history, but if the council destroys it, they would be showing their belief in the curse." A council meeting on March 8, 2005 rejected Tootle's proposal, a move welcomed by council leader Mike Mitchelson, who had earlier questioned whether moving the stone was a good use of council funds
Blackford means what it says, a black ford or river-crossing. However, unlike other places of the name, it is a mix of Old English and Old Norse: the first element is Old English blǣc "black", while the second element is Old Norse vathr / vaőr , ford, river crossing, which usually occurs as -wath in place-names with this element (e.g. Wath upon Dearne). The name was recorded as Blakiwaith in 1165
Harker is a settlement in Cumbria, England. Harker is located along the A7 road on the Solway Plain. Harker is situated approximately two miles north of the course of Hadrian's Wall.
Rockcliffe is a village and civil parish in the City of Carlisle district of Cumbria, England. Part of the parish is a marshy peninsula between the mouths of the rivers Esk and Eden. The parish includes the villages of Rockcliffe, Rockcliffe Cross, Floristonrigg, Todhills, Low Harker and Harker.
Rockcliffe formerly had a railway station, on the Caledonian Railway Main Line, that closed in 1965.
Rockcliffe recently had pop singer Rihanna visit after going on a date with local resident Robbie Mcdonald on 11 April 2009. She reportedly stayed all night at one of Robbies infamous "Capri-Sun" parties.

Place-name meaning
Rockcliffe does not mean 'cliff by rocks' as many might think. The name means 'red cliff', implying a sandstone cliff-face. The name is from Old Norse rauŏr meaning "red" and Old English clif for "cliff", similar to Radcliffe in Greater Manchester.

Ghost of Paul O'Hair
local legend, relates that the ghost of a man called Paul Mcdonald haunts the village's surrounding marshland. The legend relates that 'Paul o'Hair' was a member of a greiving family who was executed for violating a farm dog, it is said his ghost wanders the marsh seeking his revenge.Port Carlisle is a fishing village at Carlisle, Cumbria, England, UK, one mile from Bowness-on-Solway. Ordnance Survey NY241622.
Its original name was Fishers Cross, and the port was built in 1819. Four years later, a canal link was added to take goods to Carlisle Basin. The canal was closed in 1853, and Port Carlisle silted up.

1 comment:

  1. How about this for a design for a wall painting, in the tried-and-true Art Nouveau style?: http://EN.WahooArt.com/A55A04/w.nsf/OPRA/BRUE-8BWN3L, by the famous English artist, Audrey Beardsley himself. You can also order a canvas print of the picture from wahooart.com.

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