Sunday, 23 August 2009

Characters in The Lords of the North

"Uhtred - the ProtagonistA protagonist is the main Character of a drama or Narrative. The word "protagonist" derives from the Greek language p??ta????st?? , "one who plays the first part, chief actor." In the theatre of Ancient Greece, three actors played all of the main dramatic roles in a tragedy; the leading role was played by the protagonist, while the othe..., narrator, dispossessed Ealdorman of Bebbanburg
Bebbanburg is an old name for Bamburgh Castle in Northumberland, England. Bebbanburg is near Lindisfarne, which was raided by the Vikings in the 8th Century AD
King Alfred of Wessex
Alfred the Great also spelled ?lfred, was king of the southern Anglo-Saxons kingdom of Wessex from 871 to 899. Alfred is noted for his defence of the kingdom against the Danish people Vikings, becoming the only English people king to be awarded the epithet "the Great"....- The King of Wessex
Guthrum/King Aethelstan - Danish and Christian King of East AngliaGuthred - Danish slave rescued by Uhtred and proclaimed King of Northumbria
Northumbria is primarily the name of both a medieval petty kingdom of the Angles people, in what is now north east England and southern Scotland, and of the earldom which succeeded it when a united Anglo-Saxon kingdom became England....
Gisela - Danish woman, sister of Guthred
Hild - Saxon woman, a former nun who becomes Uhtred's companion
Ragnar Ragnarsson - Danish Warlord, son of Earl Ragnar, and Uhtred's foster brother and close friend
Ælfric - Uhtred's uncle and usurper of the throne of Bebbanburg
Father Beocca - Alfred's priest and Uhtred's family friend
Kjartan the Cruel - Master of Dunholm, killer of Earl Ragnar the Fearless
Sven the One-Eyed - One-eyed son of Kjartan, enemy of Uhtred
Thyra Ragnarsdottir - Sister of Ragnar, kidnapped by Sven
Ivar Ivarsson - Danish Warlord, son of Ivar the Boneless
Ivar the Boneless Ivar Ragnarsson nicknamed the Boneless , was a Denmark Viking chieftain and by reputation also a berserker. By the late 11th century, he was known as a son of the powerful Ragnar Lodbrok, ruler of an area probably comprising parts of Denmark and Sweden
Rypere - Saxon boy Uhtred trains
Clapa - Danish boy Uhtred trains
Sihtric Kjartansson - Kjartan's illegitimate son sworn to Uhtred
Jænberht and Ida - Monks in the employ of Ælfric
Abbot Eadred - Guthred's chief supporter and possessor of Saint Cuthbert's corpse
Father Hrothweard - Priest in Eoferwic/York
York is a walled city, sited at the confluence of the rivers River Ouse, Yorkshire and River Foss in North Yorkshire, England. The city status in the United Kingdom is noted for its rich heritage and it has played an important role throughout much of its almost 2,000 year existence....
Tekil - Warrior employed by Kjartan
Sverri Ravnsson - Danish trader from Jutland
Jutland peninsula historically also called Cimbria, is a peninsula in Europe. Jutland forms the mainland part of Denmark as well as the northernmost part of Germany.... who buys Uhtred as a slave from
Hakka - Sverri's Frisian right-hand man
Finan the Agile - Irish slave and warrior Uhtred befriends



Sigtrygg"Sigtrygg" is a Norwegian name; in Ireland rendered as Sitric. The names may refer to any of the following people:
Sitric the Dane, founder of Waterford Sigtrygg of Nerike, a Swede who met Saint Olaf Sigtrygg Gnupasson, a 10th century Danish king of the House of OlafKings of Dublin:
Sigtrygg Ivarsson, 888-893 Sigtrygg Ivarsson, 894-896 Sigtrygg Caech (Sigtrygg Gael), 917-921 Sigtrygg, 941-943 Sigtrygg Silkbeard Olafsson, 989-1036
A Norse leader from Dublin who attacked the kingdom of Mercia from the Mersey frontier. The Mersey formed part of the boundary between Mercia and the Viking Kingdom of York.

926 - 100 Sihtric marries Aethelstan's sister To help consolidate his links to the North Athelstan married his sister to Sihtric, the Norse King of York. 927 Athelstan becomes overlord King With the death of Sihtric, the Dane's leader in the North, Athelstan then drove out his sons. This left Athelstan the master of Northumbria. His attacks on the Welsh and the submission of Constantine the King of Scotland and Owen the King of Cumberland led to him becoming overlord. 937 Danish invasion The Dane Anlaff (possibly Sihtric's son), Owen of Cumberland and Constantine, King of the Scots sailed into the Humber to invade Nothumbria. Athelstan's speed at raising his army that marched north put paid to any plans of invasion and a fierce battle occurred (Brunanburgh near Beverley ?) in which many Danish kings and earls were killed.
Sihtric Cáech (or Sigtrygg) (died 927) was a Norse-Gael King of Dublin who later reigned as King of York. His epithet means the 'Squinty'. He belonged to the Uí Ímair kindred.
The Annals of Ulster records the arrival of two viking fleets in Ireland in 917, one led by Ragnall and the other by Sihtric, both of the Uí Ímair kindred. They fought a battle against Niall Glundub in which the Irish were routed, and according to the annals Sihtric then "entered Áth Cliath", i.e. Dublin, which we must assume means that he took possession of it. Ragnall Uí Ímair went on to Scotland, and then conquered York and became king there.
Sihtric fought several battles with Niall Glundub. Warfare is recorded in 918, and in 919 Niall and several other Irish pettykings where killed in a major battle at Dublin.. This was probably the most devastating defeat ever inflicted on the Irish by the Norse, and Sihtric's possession of Dublin seemed secure. Sihtric however left Dublin already in 920 or 921, the pious annalist claims he left "through the power of God". The truth of it was that Sihtric had ambititions elsewhere, and following Ragnall's death he became king of York. His kinsman Gothfrith ruled in Dublin.
Sihtric attacked the kingdom of Mercia from the Mersey which formed part of the border between Mercia and the Viking Kingdom of York. He also commanded Viking forces in the Battle of Confey and other battles.
In 926 he married King Athelstan of England's sister in a political move designed by Athelstan to build up his influence in the north of England. Sihtric died suddenly only a year later in 927.
Sihtric's son Olaf, whom the Irish nicknamed Cuaran, later succeeded him both as king of Dublin and of York. His son Gofraid ruled Dublin.
Regnal titles Preceded byIvar (left 902) King of Dublin 917–921 Succeeded by Gothfrith
Preceded by Ragnall King of Jórvík 921–927 Succeeded by Gothfrith

Source
Higham, Kingdom of Northumbria, pp. 186–190;
Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England, pp. 339–340.
Annals of Ulster (AU) 917.3,4,5




Osgod Clapa (died 1054), also Osgot, was a nobleman in Anglo-Saxon England during the reigns of Kings Cnut the Great, Harold Harefoot, Harthacnut, and Edward the Confessor. His name comes from the Old Danish Asgot, the byname Clapa meaning coarse, or rough, in Old English. He was a major landowner in East Anglia during a period in which no Ealdorman was appointed to the region. He held the post of staller, that is constable or master of the royal stables. In 1046 he was banished, and in 1054 he died.
Osgod is found as a witness to charters from 1026 onwards, but he first appears in narrative accounts on the occasion of the marriage of his daughter Gytha to his fellow-staller Tovi the Proud. It appears to be at these celebrations, on, or shortly before 8 June 1042, that King Harthacnut died suddenly.
Edward the Confessor kept Osgod in his position of trust, and the reasons for his eventual outlawing in late 1046 are far from clear. It may be that it was related to the earlier exile of Cnut's niece Gunnhild in 1044. Gunnhild was first married to Håkon Eiriksson, son of Cnut's trusted ally Eiríkr Hákonarson, and later to Earl Harald, son of Thorkell the Tall, a trusted servant of King Harthacnut, which placed her in a prominent position among opponents of Edward the Confessor's kingship. Osgod appears to have gone to Flanders, where Count Baldwin V gave him refuge.
In 1049 the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that after King Edward had dispersed most of the fleet he had gathered to support the Holy Roman Emperor Henry III in his war against the Count of Flanders:
Then it was told the king that Osgod lay at Ulps with thirty-nine ships; whereupon the king sent after the ships that he might dispatch, which before had gone homewards, but still lay at the Nore. Then Osgod fetched his wife from Bruges; and they went back again with six ships; but the rest went towards Essex, to Eadulf's-ness, and there plundered, and then returned to their ships. But there came upon them a strong wind, so that they were all lost but four persons, who were afterwards slain beyond sea.
The Chronicle reports Osgod's death in 1054, "suddenly in his bed, as he lay at rest", apparently still in exile.

References
Henson, Donald, A Guide to Late Anglo-Saxon England: From Ælfred to Eadgar II. Anglo-Saxon Books, 1998. ISBN 1-898281-21-1
Higham, Nick, The Death of Anglo-Saxon England. Sutton, 1997. ISBN 0-7509-2469-1
Stenton, Frank, Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford UP, 3rd edition, 1971. ISBN 0-19-280139-2


Ivar the Boneless
Ivar Ragnarsson (died possibly 873) nicknamed the Boneless (inn beinlausi), was a Danish Viking chieftain (and by reputation also a berserker), who, in the autumn of 865 A.D., with his brothers Halfdan Ragnarsson (Halfdene) and Ubbe Ragnarsson (Hubba), led the Great Heathen Army in the invasion of the East Anglian region of England. An accommodation was quickly reached with the East Anglians. The following year, Ivar led his forces north on horseback and easily captured York (what the Danes called Jorvik) from the Northumbrians who were at that time engaged in a civil war. Ivar succeeded in holding York against a vain attempt to relieve the city in A.D. 867. He was the son of the powerful Ragnar Lodbrok, ruler of an area probably comprising parts of Denmark and Sweden.Ivar is also attributed with the slaying of St. Edmund of East Anglia in 869 AD. By some accounts, when Edmund refused to become the vassal of a pagan, Ivar had Edmund bound to a tree, whereupon Vikings shot arrows into him until he died. According to others, he was shot in the nave of a church.
There is some disagreement as to the meaning of Ivar's epithet "Boneless." Some have suggested it was a euphemism for impotence or even a snake metaphor (he had a brother named Snake-in-the-Eye). However, the Scandinavian sources describe a condition that is sometimes understood as similar to a form of osteogenesis imperfecta (see below). The poem Háttalykill inn forni describes Ivar as being "without any bones at all".
Alternatively, the English word "bone" is cognate with the German word "Bein", meaning "leg". Apparently Ivar the Boneless was carried everywhere. So perhaps his epithet simply meant "legless" - perhaps literally or perhaps simply because he was lame.
It is possible that Ivar may be identical to the Ímar whose death appears in the Annals of Ulster in 873:
Ímar, king of the Norsemen of all Ireland and Britain, ended his life.Scandinavian sourcesAccording to the saga of Ragnar Lodbrok, Ivar Boneless was the eldest son of Ragnar and Kraka. It is said he was fair, big, strong, and one of the wisest men who has ever lived. He was consequently the advisor of his brothers Björn Ironside, Sigurd Snake-in-the-Eye and Hvitserk. The story has it that when king Ælla of Northumberland had murdered their father, by throwing him into a snake-pit, Ivar's brothers tried to avenge their father, but were beaten. Ivar then went to king Ælla and said that he sought reconciliation. He only asked for as much land as he could cover with an ox's hide and swore never to wage war against Ælla. Then Ivar cut the ox's hide into so fine strands that he could envelope a large fortress (in an older saga it was York and according to a younger saga it was London) which he could take as his own. As he was the most generous of men, he attracted a great many warriors whom he consequently kept from Ælla when this king was attacked by Ivar's brothers for the second time.
Ælla was captured and, when the brothers were to decide how to give Ælla his just punishment, Ivar suggested that they carve the "blood eagle" on his back. According to popular belief, this meant that Ælla's back was cut open, the ribs pulled from his spine, and his lungs pulled out to form 'wings'.
In Ragnar Lodbrok's saga, there is an interesting prequel to the Battle of Hastings: it is told that before Ivar died in England, he ordered that his body be buried in a mound on the English Shore, saying that so long as his bones guarded that section of the coast, no enemy could invade there successfully. This prophecy held true, says the saga, until "when Vilhjalm bastard (William the Conqueror) came ashore[,] he went [to the burial site] and broke Ivar's mound and saw that [Ivar's] body had not decayed. Then [Vilhjalm] had a large pyre made [upon which Ivar's body was] burned.... Thereupon, [Vilhjalm proceeded with the landing invasion and achieved] the victory."

Genetic disease
In 1949, the Dane Knud Seedorf published Osteogenesis imperfecta: A study of clinical features and heredity based on 55 Danish families, where he wrote:
Of historical personages the author knows of only one of whom we have a vague suspicion that he suffered from osteogenesis imperfecta, namely Ivar Benløs, eldest son of the Danish legendary king Regnar Lodbrog. He is reported to have had legs as soft as cartilage ('he lacked bones'), so that he was unable to walk and had to be carried about on a shield.There are less extreme forms of this disease where the person affected can lack use of their legs, but be otherwise normal, as may have been the case for Ivar the Boneless. The disease is more commonly known as "Brittle bone disease."
In 2003 Nabil Shaban, a disability rights advocate with osteogenesis imperfecta, made the documentary The Strangest Viking for Channel 4's Secret History, in which he explored the possibility that Ivar the Boneless may have had the same condition as himself. It also demonstrated that someone with the condition was quite capable of using a longbow, and so could have taken part in battle, as Viking society would have expected a leader to do.
In popular culture
Harry Harrison's Hammer and Cross series has a character by the same name, but the appellation "the boneless" refers to his impotence, not an inability to walk. In the 1958 film "The Vikings" Ivar has his name changed to Einar and is played by Kirk Douglas. In the 1989 film Erik the Viking a character by the name of Ivar the Boneless is portrayed by John Gordon Sinclair. In the film, Ivar is portrayed as a rather weedy, cowardly Viking with a high pitched voice and a tendency to get seasick. In The Sea of Trolls by Nancy Farmer Ivar is a king who was formerly a famous berserker, called Ivar the Boneless only behind his back. He was called Ivar the Valiant until he married the cruel, powerful and beautiful (in her human form) shapeshifter Frith HalfTroll. Ivar is a minor character in Bernard Cornwell's historical fiction novel, The Last Kingdom. The earl Ragnar the Elder explains that Ivar got his name because he was so thin that it appeared that one could use him to string a bow. This joke might also be a play on his name, as the name Ivar is derived from yrr ar, meaning "yew warrior". Yew was a wood commonly used for making bows.

Thyra
Thyra was the consort of King Gorm the Old of Denmark. She is believed to have led an army against the Germans. Gorm and Thyra were the parents of King Harald Bluetooth.While Gorm the Old had disparaging nicknames, his wife Thyra was referred to as a woman of great prudence. Saxo wrote that Thyra was mainly responsible for building the Dannevirke on the southern border, but archeology has proven it much older.
Gorm raised a memorial stone to Thyra at Jelling, which refers to her as tanmarka but, the 'Pride' or 'Ornament' of Denmark.
Gorm and Thyra were buried under one of the two great mounds at Jelling and later moved to the first Christian church there. This was confirmed when a tomb containing their remains was excavated in 1978 under the east end of the present church.
There are contradictory accounts of Thyra's parentage. Saxo holds she was the daughter of Æthelred, King of England but Snorri says her father was a king or jarl of Jutland or Holstein called Harald Klak. Thyra predeceased Gorm.
According to popular tradition, her daughter was captured by trolls and carried off to a kingdom in the far north beyond Halogaland and Biarmaland.
Tradition also has it that before Thyra consented to marry Gorm, she insisted he build a new house and sleep in it for the first three nights of winter and give her an account of his dreams those nights. The dreams were told at the wedding banquet and as recorded, imitate the dreams Pharaoh had that were interpreted by Joseph in Genesis. Oxen came out of the sea (bountiful harvest) and birds (glory of the king to be born).

References
Source: Saxo Grammaticus: The History of the Danes Vol II. Davidson, Hilda Ellis and Peter Fisher. (1980) D.S. Brewer: Cambridge Salmonson, Jessica Amanda.(1991)
The Encyclopedia of Amazons. Paragon House. Page 251. ISBN 1-55778-420-5

Rypere means a robber, plunderer

Jænberht (also Jænbert, Jaenberht, Jaenbert, Jaenberht, Jaenbeorht, Janibert, Janbriht, Jambert, Lambert, Lanbriht, or Genegberht) was monk, then abbot, of St Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury, and eventually Archbishop of Canterbury.
Jænberht was a monk at St Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury before being selected as abbot of that monastic house. He came from a prominent family in the kingdom of Kent, and a kinsman of his, Eadhun, was the reeve of King Egbert II of Kent. Jænberht himself was on good terms with Egbert II.

Archbishop of Canterbury
He was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury on 2 February 765. He was consecrated at the court of King Offa of Mercia, which implies that his election was acceptable to the king. He received a pallium, the symbol of an archbishop's authority given by the papacy, in 766. In 776, Kent, which had been subjected to Offa, rebelled, perhaps at the urging of Jænberht, and secured their freedom. In 780 and 781, he attended church councils at Brentford that were led by King Offa of Mercia. Although he seems to have originally been on decent terms with Offa, Jaenbert's ties to Egbert were also strong, for after the Battle of Otford, Egbert granted a number of estates to Christ Church. After Offa reasserted control over Kent, which occurred at the latest in 785, these lands were confiscated by Offa and regranted to some of Offa's thegns.

Establishment of Lichfield as an Archdiocese
His term saw a dispute between the see of Canterbury and Offa leading to the creation of the rival Archdiocese of Lichfield in 787 under Higbert. Originally, Offa attempted to the archbishopric to London, but when that effort failed, the king secured the creation of a third archbishopric in the British Isles. Lichfield was the main Mercian bishopric, and thus the new archbishopric was under Offa's control. Some of the sources of conflict were Jænberht's opposition to Offa's removal of the Kentish dynasty, a conflict over land claimed by both the archbishop and the king, and Jænberht's refusal to crown Offa's son Ecgfrith of Mercia. Another source of conflict was Canterbury's mint, where the archbishop minted his own coins. Matthew Paris, in the thirteenth century, stated that Jænberht conspired with Charlemagne to admit Charlemagne to Canterbury if Charlemagne invaded Britain. This story may reflect a genuine tradition recorded at St Albans Abbey, where Paris was based, or it may just be a fabrication designed to fill in details in Jænberht's life where Paris had no other information. A rumour was also current that claimed falsely that Offa was plotting with Charlemagne to depose Pope Hadrian I, and at least one modern historian, Simon Keynes, feels that it is possible that Jænberht might have been behind the rumour.
In 787, Pope Adrian I sent a pallium to Higbert of Lichfield, which elevated Lichfield to an archbishopric, and Ecgfrith was crowned. There is no extant contemporary evidence, however, that Jænberht ever recognized Higbert as an archbishop. Canterbury retained as suffragans the bishops of Winchester, Sherborne, Selsey, Rochester, and London. The dioceses of Worcester, Hereford, Leicester, Lindsey, Dommoc and Elmham were transferred to Lichfield.

Councils at London and Clovesho; Death of Jænberht
Jænberht presided at a council held at London, sometime after the elevation of Lichfield, which was attended by most of the bishops from the southern part of Britain.
Jænberht died on 12 August 792. After his death, Offa at a council held at Clofesho and granted some privileges to the Kentish churches. Jænberht was buried in the abbey church of St Augustine's Abbey in Canterbury. Jænberht has since been revered as a saint with a feast day of 12 August.

Notes
The archbishopric at Lichfield was abolished after Offa's death, and was no longer an archdiocese by 803

Sources
Brooks, Nicholas (1984). The Early History of the Church of Canterbury: Christ Church from 597 to 1066. London: Leicester University Press. ISBN 0-7185-0041-5.
Costambeys, Marios (2004). "Jænberht (d. 792)" (fee required). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/14581. Accessed 7 November 2007
Fryde, E. B.; Greenway, D. E.; Porter, S.; Roy, I. (1996). Handbook of British Chronology (Third revised ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X.
Hindley, Geoffrey (2006). A Brief History of the Anglo-Saxons: The Beginnings of the English Nation. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 978-0-78671-738-5.
Kirby, D. P. (2000). The Earliest English Kings. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24211-8. Keynes, Simon (2001). "Jænberht". in Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Keynes, Simon; Scragg, Donald. The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 257-258. ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1.
Yorke, Barbara (2006). The Conversion of Britain: Religion, Politics and Society in Britain c. 600-800. London: Pearson/Longman. ISBN 0-582-77292-3.
Yorke, Barbara (1997). Kings and Kingdoms of Early Anglo-Saxon England. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16639-

Ida is a female name derived from Old Norse ið, which means 'deed' or 'action'. Its name day is on February 16 in Slovakia, March 15 in the Czech Republic, on September 4 in Germany, Norway and Poland, on September 14 in Sweden and Finland. It is also an Old English masculine name, derived from the same Germanic root.

Ida of Bernicia
"Saxon Heptarchy"Ida (died c. 559) is the first known king of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia, which he ruled from around 547 until his death in 559. Little is known of his life or reign, but he was regarded as the founder of a line from which later Anglo-Saxon kings in this part of northern England and southern Scotland claimed descent. His descendants successfully fought off British resistance and ultimately founded the powerful kingdom of Northumbria.

Sources
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle indicates that Ida's reign began in 547, and records him as the son of Eoppa, grandson of Esa, and great-grandson of Ingwy. Likewise, the Historia Brittonum records him as the son of Eoppa, and calls him the first king of Berneich or Bernicia. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle elaborates that he ruled for twelve years and built the Bernician capital of Bamburgh Castle. Later, however, the Chronicle confuses his territory with the later Northumbria, saying that Ælla, historically a king of Deira rather than Bernicia, succeeded him as king after his death Northumbria did not exist until the union of Bernicia with the kingdom of Deira; this happened for the first time under Ida's grandson Æthelfrith. The genealogies of the Anglo-Saxon kings attached to some manuscripts of the Historia Brittonum give more information on Ida and his family; the text names Ida's "one queen" as Bearnoch and indicates that he had twelve sons. Several of these are named, and some of them are listed as kings. One of them, Theodric, is noted for fighting against a British coalition led by Urien Rheged and his sons.
Some 19th-century commentators, beginning with Lewis Morris, associated Ida with the figure of Welsh tradition known as Flamdwyn ("Flame-bearer"). This Flamdwyn was evidently an Anglo-Saxon leader opposed by Urien Rheged and his children, particularly his son Owain, who slew him. However, Rachel Bromwich notes that such an identification has little to back it; other writers, such as Thomas Stephens and William Forbes Skene, identify Flamdwyn instead with Ida's son Theodric, noting the passages in the genealogies discussing Theodric's battles with Urien and his sons.
At the time Ida was ruling, Bernician control did not extend far inland from the coast. It was not until the time of Æthelfrith, Ida's grandson, that the kingdom expanded significantly to the west. This is supported by the Historia Brittonum's description of fighting between Bernicians and the native Britons of the area, indicating ongoing resistance. It is also supported by the scarcity of sixth-century Anglo-Saxon archaeological finds from further inland.
Notes
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, entry for 547.
Historia Brittonum, ch. 56.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, entry for 560.
Historia Brittonum, ch. 57.
Historia Brittonum, ch. 63.
Morris-Jones, John (1918). "Taliesin". Y Cymmrodor 28: 154.

References
Bromwich, Rachel (2006), Trioedd Ynys Prydein: The Triads of the Island of Britain, University of Wales Press, ISBN 0-7083-1386-8
Fletcher, Richard (1989). Who's Who in Roman Britain and Anglo-Saxon England. Shepheard-Walwyn. ISBN 0-85683-089-5.
Morris-Jones, John (1918). "Taliesin". Y Cymmrodor 28.

Saint Ita, also known as Saint Ida or Saint Ides, (c. 475 – January 15, 570), was an Irish nun.
Ida, called the "Brigid of Munster", was born in the present County of Waterford. She became a nun, settling down at Cluain Credhail, a place-name that has ever since been known as Killeedy--that is, "Church of St. Ita"--in County Limerick. There, she was the head of a community of women. That group seems to have had a school for little boys where the boys were taught "Faith in God with purity of heart; simplicity of life with religion; generosity with love". Her pupils are said to have included Saint Brendan. Her legend places a great deal of emphasis on her austerities are told by St. Cuimin of Down, and numerous miracles are recorded of her. She is also said to be the originator of an Irish lullaby for the infant Jesus, an English version of which was set for voice and piano by the American composer Samuel Barber. She probably died of cancer though contemporary chroniclers describe how her side was consumed by a beetle which eventually grew to the size of a pig, understandable given the early medieval conflation of sanctity and suffering. The particular species of beetle is not described.
She was also endowed with the gift of prophecy and was held in great veneration by a large number of contemporary saints, men as well as women. When she felt her end approaching she sent for her community of nuns, and invoked the blessing of heaven on the clergy and laity of the district around Kileedy. Not alone was St. Ita a saint, but she was the foster-mother of many saints, including St. Brendan the Navigator, St. Pulcherius (Mochoemog) and Cummian. At the request of Bishop Butler of Limerick, Pope Pius IX granted a special Office and Mass for the feast of St. Ita, which is kept on January 15.
St. Ita's AFC is the name of the association football club which is based in Killeedy. The saint appears on the club's crest.
Another village in County Limerick, Kilmeedy (In Irish - Cill m'Ide, or church of my Ita) has links with the saint as well - having first setup a church in Kilmeedy before the one in Killeedy.

References
"St. Ita". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08201c.htm.
Attwater, Donald and Catherine Rachel John. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. 3rd edition. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. ISBN 0-140-51312-4.

EDRED (EADRED)
English (d . 955), was the youngest son of EDWARD Elder and his wife Eadgifu . He succeeded his brother EDMUND or EADMUND (c. 980-1016)



Sverri's saga http://www.northvegr.org/lore/sverri/index.php
The northern conquest: Vikings in Britain and Ireland By Katherine Holman

Hakka Frisian boy horse name or did cornwell give him this name because this is what he does hack with his sword

Finan
The name Finan is a baby boy name. The name Finan comes from the Irish origin. In Irish The meaning of the name Finan is: Blonde child. An old Irish name originally spelled Finán.
St. Finan Feastday: April 7 Patron of monastery in Kinitty, Offaly, Ireland 6th century
Disciple of St. Brendan and founder abbot of a monastery in Kinitty,

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