Wednesday, 26 August 2009

Jarrow /Gyruum: Place in Bernard Cornwell's saxon Series ****



Jarrow (pronounced /ˈdʒæroʊ/ or /ˈdʒærə/) is a town in Tyne and Wear, England. It is located on the River Tyne and has a population of around 27,000 (2001 Census).








Jarrow, South Tyne on Wear shown as yellow dot

Saxon foundation
The Anglo-Saxons re-occupied a 1st century Roman fort on the site of Jarrow in the 5th century Its name is recorded around AD 750 as Gyruum, representing Anglo-Saxon [æt] Gyrwum = "[at] the marsh dwellers", from Anglo-Saxon gyr = "mud", "marsh". Later spellings are Jaruum in 1158, and Jarwe in 1228.





Wearmouth-Jarrow Priory
The Monastery of Saint Paul in Jarrow, part of the twin foundation Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Priory, was once the home of the Venerable Bede, whose most notable works include The Ecclesiastical History of the English People and the translation of the Gospel of John into Old English. At the time of its foundation, it was reputed to have been the only centre of learning in Europe north of Rome. In 794 Jarrow became the second target in England of the Vikings, who had plundered Lindisfarne in 793.




Monkwear Priory

The Monastery was later dissolved by Henry VIII. The ruins of the Monastery are now associated with and partly built into the present-day church of St. Paul, which stands on the site. One wall of the church contains the oldest stained-glass window in the world, dating from about AD 600. Just beside the Monastery is "Bede's World", a working museum dedicated to the life and times of Bede. Bede's World also incorporates Jarrow Hall, a grade II listed building and significant local landmark.


Jarrow Hall


19th century to present
Jarrow remained a small town until the introduction of heavy industries like coal mining and shipbuilding. Charles Mark Palmer established a shipyard - Palmers Shipbuilding and Iron Company Limited - here in 1852 and became the first armour-plate manufacturer in the world. John Bowes, the first iron screw collier, revived the Tyne coal trade, and Palmers was also responsible for the first modern cargo ship, as well as a number of notable warships.
Palmers employed as much as 80% of the town's working population until its closure in 1934 following purchase by National Shipbuilders Securities Ltd. This organisation had been set up by Baldwin's Conservative government in the 1920s but the first public statement had been made in 1930 whilst Labour was in office. The aim of NSS was to reduce capacity within the British shipyards.

Olympic




In fact Palmer's yard was relatively efficient and modern, but had serious financial problems. Around 1,000 ships were built at the yard. As from 1935, Olympic, the sister ship of RMS Titanic, was partially demolished at Jarrow (in 1937 she was towed to Inverkeithing, Scotland for final scrapping). The closure of the shipyard was responsible for one of the events for which Jarrow is most famous. Jarrow is marked in history as the starting point of the Jarrow Crusade (to London) to protest against unemployment in Britain in 1936. Jarrow MP Ellen Wilkinson wrote about these events in her book The Town That Was Murdered (1939). Jarrow was also one of the focuses of Philip Gibbs's absorbing book England Speaks (1935). Some doubt has been cast by historians as to how effective events such as the Jarrow March actually were (Lloyd "Empire to Welfare State",1970), but there is some evidence that they stimulated interest in regenerating 'distressed areas'(Marwick "Britain in our Century", 1984).







St. Peter Wearmouth








Wearmouth-Jarrow is a twin-foundation English monastery, located on the River Wear in Sunderland and the River Tyne at Jarrow respectively, in the Kingdom of Northumbria (now in the metropolitan county Tyne and Wear). Its formal name is The Abbey Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, Wearmouth-Jarrow. The twin Anglo-Saxon monastery is the UK nomination for World Heritage Site status in 2010. http://www.wearmouth-jarrow.org.uk/


Benedict Biscop


Foundation
The monastery was founded in 674 by Benedict Biscop, with the establishment of the monastery of St Peter's, Monkwearmouth on land given by Egfrid, King of Northumbria. His idea was to build a model monastery for England, sharing his knowledge of the experience of the Catholic Church in Europe in an area previously more influenced by Celtic Christianity from Melrose and Iona.




Melrose Abbey



Iona Abbey

A papal letter in 678 exempted the monastery from external control, and in 682 the King was so delighted at the success of St Peter's, he gave Benedict more land in Jarrow and urged him to build a second monastery. Benedict erected a sister foundation (St Paul) at Jarrow, appointing Ceolfrid as its superior, who left Wearmouth with 20 monks (including his protege the young Bede) to start the foundation in Jarrow.
Benedict brought workmen from France to build these churches in the Roman fashion (ie in stone), and furnished it with glass windows, pictures, service books and the library he had collected on his travels. Glassmaking and building in stone being unknown to England at the time, Biscop imported architects and glassmakers from Francia, modern France, who established a workshop at the Monkwearmouth site, re-establishing glassmaking in Britain (after its loss since the Romans' departure), as commemorated by the modern National Glass Centre which stands on a nearby site on the river Wear.
The two monasteries were so closely connected in their early history that they are often spoken of figuratively as one, despite being 7 miles apart. Benedict himself was the first abbot, and the monastery flourished under him and his successors Easterwin, St. Ceolfrid, and others, for two hundred years. Benedict, on leaving England for Rome in 686 established Ceolfrith as Abbot in Jarrow, and Eosterwine at Monkwearmouth but, before his death, stipulated that the two sites should function as 'one monastery in two places'.

Ceolfrith
Ceolfrith as abbot continued Benedict's work in establishing the monastery as a centre of learning, scholarship, and especially book production, during which time a distinctive house style of half-uncial script emerged. Ceolfrith's major project was the production of three great "pandect" Bibles (ie manuscripts containing the entire text of the Bible), intended to furnish the churches of St Peter's and St Paul's, with the third copy earmarked as a gift to the Pope. The only survivor of the three bibles is the Codex Amiatinus, now in Florence, the oldest complete surviving Bible in the world, which was being carried to Rome by Ceolfrith himself when he died in 716. The Bible was carried to Rome by his companions, whence Pope Gregory II sent his thanks to Ceolfirth's successor, Abbot Hwaetberht.


Bede
At the time of their foundation, the monasteries were reputed to have been the only centre of learning in Europe north of Rome. The library Benedict had created on his travels to Rome and then given to the monastery made it the cradle not only of English art but of English literature - Jarrow is where the Venerable Bede received his early education under Ceolfrith's patronage and lived, wrote and died as a monk. By his death Bede had established himself as England's leading scriptural and historical authority, and was to have a vital post-mortem influence on the fortunes of the monastery. Bede's writings, most importantly his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum would become so popular in the 8th century that they not only assured the reputation of the houses, but influenced the development of Wearmouth-Jarrow's distinctive insular minuscule script, developed to increase the speed of book production.
Viking attacks
The golden age of Wearmouth-Jarrow began to draw to a close in the late 8th century, as Northumbrian monasteries became vulnerable to Viking raids, with Wearmouth-Jarrow itself being attacked in 794 (the second target in England of the Vikings, after raids on Lindisfarne in 793). They were finally destroyed by the Danes about 860, and seem to have been finally abandoned in the late 9th century.


Viking Statues in Jarrow


Norman
In the early 1070s Aldwin, prior of Winchcombe, was inspired by Bede's Historia to tour the sites of the Northumbrian Saxon saints, including Jarrow where he held masses in the Saxon ruins and began (with his 23 colleagues from Evesham Abbey) to build a new monastery. However, its southern and western ranges were still incomplete when they were recalled to Durham Cathedral Priory in 1083. From then until the Dissolution, Jarrow was merely a minor cell of Durham, occupied by only one or two monks under a magister or master. The names of only two of these superiors have been preserved-those of Alexander Larnesley and John Norton.
After the Conquest, both monasteries suffered at the hands of Malcolm III of Scotland.
Dissolution and after
The Monastery was later dissolved by Henry VIII. In 1545 "all the house and seite of the late cell of Wearmouth", valued at about £26 yearly, were granted by Henry VIII to Thomas Whitehead, a relative of Prior Hugh Whitehead of Durham, who resigned that monastery in 1540 and became the first dean. Wearmouth passed afterwards to the Widdrington family, then to that of Fenwick. The remains of the monastic buildings at Wearmouth were incorporated into a private mansion built in James I's reign; but this was burned down in 1790, and no trace is now visible of the monastery.
Today
The present parish church of St Peter's at Wearmouth (54°54′47″N 1°22′30″W / 54.9131°N 1.3749°W / 54.9131; -1.3749 (St Peter's, Wearmouth)), on the north bank of the River Wear, occupies the ancient priory church building and is one of the oldest churches in Great Britain. The tower dates from Norman times, and doubtless formed part of the building as restored after the Conquest. The church is now part of the Parish of Monkwearmouth, which also includes All Saints' Church and St. Andrew's Church. It is adjacent to the St. Peter's Campus of the University of Sunderland and the National Glass Centre.


Second site at the Jarrow Monastery are now associated with the former monastic church, which survived as the present-day church of St. Paul (54°58′49″N 1°28′20″W / 54.9804°N 1.4722°W / 54.9804; -1.4722 (St Paul's, Jarrow)). The Saxon-Norman nave collapsed and was replaced with a Victorian one, but the Saxon chancel survives, with the oldest stained-glass window in the world, made up of excavated fragments dating from about AD 600. Inside the church, cemented into the wall of the tower, is the original stone slab recording the dedication of the church on 23 April AD 685.


View of the North East corner of the cloister, looking towards the south west (c) English Heritage

Other than the chancel of St Paul's Church, none of the 7th century monastery survives above ground, but its layout is marked out with stone slabs. The whole site is a Scheduled Ancient Monument.



The river Don connected St Paul’s to the river Tyne and out to the North Sea, and was a point of arrival for visitors to the monastery. Workshops line the river front, tiered gardens rising to the monastery and behind that the Church


The reconstructed farm at 'Bede's World'

Near the remains at Jarrow is "Bede's World" (54°58′57″N 1°28′26″W / 54.9824°N 1.4739°W / 54.9824; -1.4739 (Bede's World)), a museum dedicated to the life and times of Bede and to celebrating Anglo-Saxon cultural achievements, including a working example of a reconstructed Anglo-Saxon farm called Gyrwe (pronounced 'Yeerweh') after the Old English name for Jarrow, showing crop and animal husbandry with full-size reconstructions of 3 timber buildings from Northumbria based on the evidence of archaeological work. The farm animals are specially bred to simulate the type of animal seen in Anglo-Saxon England; cattle are smaller and sheep more varied. Ancient strains of wheat and vegetables such as those which Bede and his brothers in the monastery might have eaten are grown. There are also interactive museum displays, with a permanent 'Age of Bede' exhibition and a collection of Anglo-Saxon to post Medieval objects (mainly excavated from the monastic site of St Paul's, Jarrow), the historic and listed Jarrow Hall and a herb garden

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