Monday, 17 August 2009

Viking York


Scandinavian York is a term, like the terms Kingdom of Jórvík or Kingdom of York, used by historians for the kingdom of Northumbria in the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse and Hiberno-Norse warrior-kings; in particular, it is used to refer to the city controlled by these kings.


Viking Port of York



The name Jórvík is the Scandinavianisation of Eoforwic, the native name for 10th century Northumbria's capital, now known as York. The kingdom's territory encompassed a large part of what is now northern England, and also parts of what is now southern Scotland. With a few interruptions due to wars with Wessex, the Anglo- and Hiberno-Norse monarchy lasted from 876 to 954.
During part of its existence, Northumbria had a very strong relationship with the Norse Kingdom of Dublin in Ireland. Though the two never merged, they did share four of the same kings in the form of Sigtrygg Caech, Guthfrith, Olaf and Olaf Cuaran. Also from 902 until 921, the Kingdom of Mann and the Isles was under direct Jórvík rule
History


Viking Ireland Map

York had been founded as the Roman legionary fortress of Eboracum and revived as the Anglo-Saxon trading port of Eoforwic. It was first captured in November, 866 by a large army of Danish Vikings, called the "Great Heathen Army" by Anglo-Saxon chroniclers, which had landed in East Anglia and made their way north, aided by a supply of horses with which King Edmund of East Anglia bought them off and by civil in-fighting between royal candidates in the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria between the leaders of its two sub-kingdoms; Bernicia and Deira. Declaring a truce, the rivals for the throne of Northumbria joined forces but failed to retake the city in March, 867, and with their deaths Deira came under Danish control as the Kingdom of Northumbria and the Northumbrian royal court fled north to refuge in Bernicia. A Viking attempt against Mercia the same season failed and in 869 their efforts against Wessex were fruitless in the face of opposition from Kings Ethelred and Alfred the Great.
York's importance as the seat of Northumbria increased when the Scandinavian warlord, Guthrum, headed for East Anglia, while Prince Halfdan of Sjaelland seized power in AD 876. While the Danish army was busy in Britain, the Isle of Man and Ireland, the Swedish army was occupied with defending the Danish and Swedish homelands where Halfdan's brothers were in control.


Seated Eric Bloodaxe and Gunnhild are confronted by Egill Skallagrímsson.


Native Danish rulers who eventually made Jelling in Jutland the site of Gorm the Old's kingdom, were in the East Anglian Kingdom. The Five Burghs/Jarldoms were based upon the Kingdom of Lindsey and were a sort of frontier between each kingdom. King Canute the Great would later "reinstall" a Norwegian dynasty of jarls in Northumbria (Eric of Hlathir), with a Danish dynasty of jarls in East Anglia (Thorkel).



Map of the 'Five Burghs / Jarldoms'


Northern England would continue to be a source of intrigue for the Norwegians until Harald III of Norway's death at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066 just prior to the Battle of Hastings and the Norman conquest.
The area of the palace built by the Viking rulers in what is now York was known as the Konungsgarðr and is today known as King's Square, which nucleates the Ainsty. New streets, lined by regular building fronts for timber houses were added to an enlarging city between AD 900 and 935, dates arrived at by tree-ring chronology carried out on remaining posts preserved in anaerobic clay subsoil.
The Viking kingdom was absorbed into England in 954, without cramping its economic success: by ca 1000, the urban boom brought the Viking city of Jórvík to a population total second only to that of London within the Britain. William the Conqueror brought the independence of Jórvík to an end and established garrisoned castles in the city.

Aftermath

Raven painted Shield


Between 1070 and 1085 there were occasional attempts by the Danish Vikings to recapture their Kingdom of Jórvík, however these attempts did not materialise into the return of the kingdom.
After the Kingdom of Jórvík was merged with Northumbria (by now an Earldom of England under the House of Wessex) the title King of Jórvík became redundant, and was succeeded by the title Earl of York, created in 960. Although some of the early Earls of York were Nordic like the Jórvík Kings, they were succeeded by Normans after the Norman conquest, until the title was abolished by King Henry II. The title Duke of York, a title of nobility in British peerage, was created in 1341, but was merged with the Crown when the 4th Duke became King Edward IV. Subsequently, the title of Duke of York has usually been given to the second son of the King or Queen.

Archaeological findings
From 1976 to 1981, the York Archaeological Trust conducted a five-year excavation in and around the street of Coppergate in central York.


Viking Helmet


This demonstrated that, in the 10th century, Jórvík's trading connections reached to the Byzantine Empire and beyond: a cap made of silk survives, and coins from Samarkand were familiar enough and respected enough for a counterfeit to have passed in trade. Both these items, as well as a large human coprolite known as the Lloyds Bank coprolite, were famously recovered in York a millennium later. Amber from the Baltic is often expected at a Viking site and at Jórvík an impractical and presumably symbolic axehead of amber was found. A cowrie shell indicates contact with the Red Sea or the Persian Gulf. Christian and pagan objects have survived side-by-side, usually taken as a sign that Christians were not in positions of authority.


Viking Weapons


After the excavation, the York Archaeological Trust took the decision to recreate the excavated part of Jórvík on the Coppergate site, and this is now the Jorvik Viking Centre.



The raven banner (in Old Norse, Hrafnsmerki; in Old English, Hravenlandeye) was a flag, possibly totemic in nature, flown by various Viking chieftains and other Scandinavian rulers during the ninth, tenth and eleventh centuries CE. The flag, as depicted in Norse artwork, was roughly triangular, with a rounded outside edge on which there hung a series of tabs or tassels. It bore a resemblance to ornately carved "weather-vanes" used aboard Viking longships.
Scholars conjecture that the raven flag was a symbol of Odin, who was often depicted accompanied by two ravens named Hugin and Munin. Its intent may have been to strike fear in one's enemies by invoking the power of Odin. As one scholar notes regarding encounters between the Anglo-Saxons (who had Christianized from their indigenous Germanic paganism) and the invading Scandinavians (who retained their native form of Germanic paganism):
"The Anglo-Saxons probably thought that the banners were imbued with the evil powers of pagan idols, since the Anglo-Saxons were aware of the significance of Óðinn and his ravens in Norse mythologyRaven symbolism in indigenous Scandinavian culture Vendel era helmet with raven noseguard, at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities.


Vendel era helmet plate, found in Uppland, interpreted as Odin.


Raven artwork on a Swedish Vendel era shield, at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities.The raven is a common iconic figure in Norse mythology. The highest god Odin had two ravens named Huginn and Muninn ("thought" and "memory" respectively) who flew around the world bringing back tidings to their master. Therefore, one of Odin's many names was the "raven god" (Hrafnaguð). In Gylfaginning (c. 1220), the medieval Icelandic historian Snorri Sturluson explains:
Hrafnar tveir sitja á öxlum honum ok segja í eyru honum öll tíðendi, þau er þeir sjá eða heyra. Þeir heita svá, Huginn ok Muninn. Þá sendir hann í dagan at fljúga um heim allan, ok koma þeir aftr at dögurðarmáli. Þar af verðr hann margra tíðenda víss. Því kalla menn hann Hrafnaguð, svá sem sagt er:
Huginn ok Muninn fljúga hverjan dag jörmungrund yfir; óumk ek Hugin, at hann aftr né komi, þó sjáumk ek meir of Munin."
Two ravens sit on Odin's shoulders, and bring to his ears all that they hear and see. Their names are Hugin and Munin. At dawn he sends them out to fly over the whole world, and they come back at breakfast time. Thus he gets information about many things, and hence he is called Rafnagud (raven-god). As is here said:
Hugin and Munin Fly every day Over the great earth. I fear for Hugin That he may not return, Yet more am I anxious for Munin.

Painting of Valhalla


Odin was also closely linked to ravens because in Norse myths he received the fallen warriors at Valhalla, and ravens were linked with death and war due to their predilection for carrion. It is consequently likely that they were regarded as manifestations of the valkyries, goddesses who chose the valiant dead for military service in Valhalla. A further connection between ravens and Valkyries was indicated in the shapshifting abilities of goddesses and Valkyries, who could appear in the form of birds.
The raven appears in almost every skaldic poem describing warfare. To make war was to feed and please the raven (hrafna seðja, hrafna gleðja). An example of this is found in Norna-Gests þáttr, where Regin recites the following poem after Sigurd kills the sons of Hunding:
Nú er blóðugr örn breiðum hjörvi bana Sigmundar á baki ristinn. Fár var fremri, sá er fold rýðr, hilmis nefi, ok hugin gladdi. Now the blood eagle With a broad sword The killer of Sigmund Carved on the back. Fewer were more valiant As the troops dispersed A chief of people Who made the raven glad.


The Coat of arms of the Isle of Man, a formerly Norse-dominated kingdom; note the supporting raven on the right.


Above all, kennings used in Norse poetry identify the raven as the bird of blood, corpses and battle; he is the gull of the wave of the heap of corpses, who screams dashed with hail and craves morning steak as he arrives at the sea of corpses (Hlakkar hagli stokkin már valkastar báru, krefr morginbráðar er kemr at hræs sævi).
In black flocks, the ravens hover over the corpses and the skald asks where they are heading (Hvert stefni þér hrafnar hart með flokk hinn svarta). The raven goes forth in the blood of those fallen in battle (Ód hrafn í valblóði). He flies from the field of battle with blood on his beak, human flesh in his talons and the reek of corpses from his mouth (Með dreyrgu nefi, hold loðir í klóum en hræs þefr ór munni). The ravens who were the messengers of the highest god, Hugin and Munin, increasingly had hellish connotations, and as early as in the Christian Sólarljóð, stanza 67, the ravens of Hel(l) (heljar hrafnar) who tear the eyes off backtalkers are mentioned. Two curses in the Poetic Edda say "may ravens tear your heart asunder" (Þit skyli hjarta rafnar slíta). and "the ravens shall tear out your eyes in the high gallows" (Hrafnar skulu þér á hám galga slíta sjónir ór). Ravens are thus seen as instruments of divine (if harsh and unpleasant) justice.
Despite the violent imagery associated with them, early Scandinavians regarded the raven as a largely positive figure; battle and harsh justice were not viewed unfavorably in Norse culture. Many Old Norse personal names referred to the raven, such as Hrafn, Hrafnkel and Hrafnhild.


Ragnar Lodbrok and purported descendants
The raven banner was used by a number of Viking warlords regarded in Norse tradition as the sons of the Danish king Ragnar Lodbrok.
I can see Uhtreds Helmet looking similar to this one and his banner being similar in size and shape to the Raven Banner except he would have had his grey Wolf's Head
The first mention of a Viking force carrying a raven banner is in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. For the year 878, the Chronicle relates:
And in the winter of this same year the brother of Ivar and Halfdan landed in Wessex, in Devonshire, with 23 ships, and there was he slain, and 800 men with him, and 40 of his army. There also was taken the war-flag (guðfani), which they called "Raven".
The Annals of Saint Neot confirms the presence of the raven banner in the Great Heathen Army and adds insight into its seiðr- (witchcraft-) influenced creation and totemic and oracular nature:
It is said that three sisters of Hingwar and Habba [Ivar and Ubbe], i.e., the daughters of Ragnar Loðbrok, had woven that banner and gotten it ready during one single midday's time. Further it is said that if they were going to win a battle in which they followed that signum, there was to be seen, in the center of the signum, a raven, gaily flapping its wings. But if they were going to be defeated, the raven dropped motionless. And this always proved true.
This account is repeated almost verbatim in Bishop Asser's Life of King Alfred: "The daughters of Loðbrók had woven that banner and finished it during one single midday's time. It also is said that in any battle where the signum was borne before them, if they were to win victory one would see in the middle of the signum a living raven flying; but if they were about to be defeated, it hung straight and still." Geffrei Gaimar's Estorie des Engles (written around 1140) mentions the Hrafnsmerki being borne by the army of Ubbe at the Battle of Cynuit (878): "[t]he Raven was Ubbe's banner (gumfanun). He was the brother of Iware; he was buried by the Danes in a very big mound in Devonshire, called Ubbelawe."



Orkney, Dublin and Jorvik

Coin minted by Olaf Cuaran, 10th century king of Dublin and Jorvik.

A triangular banner appearing to depict a bird (possibly a raven) appears on coins minted by Olaf Cuaran around 924. The coins feature a roughly right isosceles triangular standard, with the two equilateral sides situated at the top and staff, respectively. Along the hypotenuse are a series of five tabs or tassels. The staff is topped by what appears to be a cross; this may indicate a fusion of Norse pagan and Christian symbolism. The raven banner was also a standard used by the Norse Jarls of Orkney. According to the Orkneyinga Saga, it was made for Sigurd the Stout by his mother, a völva or sorceress. She told him that the banner would "bring victory to the man it's carried before, but death to the one who carries it." The saga describes the flag as "a finely made banner, very cleverly embroidered with the figure of a raven, and when the banner fluttered in the breeze, the raven seemed to be flying ahead." Sigurd's mother's prediction came true when, according to the sagas, all of the bearers of the standard met untimely ends. The "curse" of the banner ultimately fell on Jarl Sigurd himself at the Battle of Clontarf:
Earl Sigurd had a hard battle against Kerthialfad, and Kerthialfad came on so fast that he laid low all who were in the front rank, and he broke the array of Earl Sigurd right up to his banner, and slew the banner-bearer. Then he got another man to bear the banner, and there was again a hard fight. Kerthialfad smote this man too his death blow at once, and so on one after the other all who stood near him. Then Earl Sigurd called on Thorstein the son of Hall of Sida, to bear the banner, and Thorstein was just about to lift the banner, but then Asmund the White said, "Don't bear the banner! For all they who bear it get their death." "Hrafn the Red!" called out Earl Sigurd, "bear thou the banner." "Bear thine own devil thyself," answered Hrafn. Then the earl said, "`Tis fittest that the beggar should bear the bag;'" and with that he took the banner from the staff and put it under his cloak. A little after Asmund the White was slain, and then the earl was pierced through with a spear.
Other


Detail from the Bayeux Tapestry, showing a Norman knight carrying what appears to be a raven banner.


The army of King Canute the Great of England, Norway and Denmark bore a raven banner made from white silk at the Battle of Ashingdon in 1016. The Encomium Emmae reports that Canute had
...a banner which gave a wonderful omen. I am well aware that this may seem incredible to the reader, but nevertheless I insert it in my veracious work because it is true: This banner was woven of the cleanest and whitest silk and no picture of any figures was found on it. In case of war, however, a raven was always to be seen, as if it were woven into it. If the Danes were going to win the battle, the raven appeared, beak wide open, flapping its wings and restless on its feet. If they were going to be defeated, the raven did not stir at all, and its limbs hung motionless.
In his Lives of Waltheof and his Father Sivard Digri (The Stout), the Earl of Northumberland, the English historian William of Ramsey (Bishop of Crowland) reports that the Danish jarl of Northumbria, Sigurd, was given a banner by an unidentified old sage. The banner was called Ravenlandeye.
According to the Heimskringla, Harald Hardrada flew a raven banner called Landøyðan or "Land-waster"; whether this was the same banner as that flown by Sigurd of Northumbria is unclear. In a conversation between Harald and King Sweyn II of Denmark,
Sveinn asked Haraldr which of his possessions of his he valued most highly. He answered that it was his banner (merki), Landøyðan. Thereupon Sveinn asked what virtue it had to be accounted so valuable. Haraldr replied that it was prophesied that victory would be his before whom this banner was borne; and added that this had been the case ever since he had obtained it. Thereupon Sveinn said, "I shall believe that your flag has this virtue if you fight three battles with King Magnús, your kinsman, and are victorious in all."
Years later, during Harald's invasion of England, Harald fought a pitched battle against two English earls outside York. Harald's Saga relates that
when King Haraldr saw that the battle array of the English had come down along the ditch right opposite them, he had the trumpets blown and sharply urged his men to the attack, raising his banner called Landøyðan. And there so strong an attack was made by him that nothing held against it.

Detail from the Bayeux tapestry, showing a broken raven banner lying on the ground.


Harald's army flew the banner at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, where it was carried by a warrior named Frírek. After Harald was struck by an arrow and killed, his army fought fiercely for possession of the banner, and some of them went berserk in their frenzy to secure the flag. In the end the "magic" of the banner failed, and the bulk of the Norwegian army was slaughtered, with only a few escaping to their ships.
Other than the dragon banner of Olaf II of Norway, the Landøyðan of Harald Hardrada is the only early Norwegian royal standard described by Snorri Sturluson in the Heimskringla.
In two panels of the famous Bayeux tapestry, standards are shown which appear to be raven banners. The Bayeux tapestry was commissioned by Bishop Odo, the half-brother of William the Conqueror; as one of the combatants at the Battle of Hastings, Odo would have been familiar with the standards carried into the fight. In one of the panels, depicting a Norman cavalry charge against an English shield-wall, a charging Norman knight is depicted with a semicircular banner emblazoned with a standing black bird. In a second, depicting the deaths of Harold Godwinson's brothers, a triangular banner closely resembling that shown on Olaf Cuaran's coin lies broken on the ground. Scholars are divided as to whether these are simply relics of the Normans' Scandinavian heritage (or for that matter, the Scandinavian influence in Anglo-Saxon England) or whether they reflect an undocumented Norse presence in either the Norman or English army.
Despite claims that the Hrafnsmerki was the first European flag in the New World, there is no indication that it was ever carried as a universal flag of Scandinavians, and no source assigns it to the Vinland settlers (or any other Icelandic or Greenlandic group).
The Uí Ímair (Uí Ímhair), or House of Ivar, were a Danish and Norse dynasty who ruled the Irish sea region and western coast of Scotland from the late ninth century into the tenth century. The name is Old Irish, and means "grandchildren" or descendants of Ivar, perhaps referring to Ivar the Boneless, the man whose obituary is recorded in the Irish annals under the year 873, reading Imhar, rex Nordmannorum totius Hibernie & Brittanie, uitam finiuit., or "Ivar, king of all the Norse of Ireland and Britain, ended his life".
The Uí Ímair took their inheritance and ruled the same area - namely the Irish longphuirt (i.e. "ship-ports" like Dublin, Limerick and Waterford), Mann, the Hebrides, Argyll, and the coasts of Galloway, Ayrshire, and Cumberland-Westmorland, as well as much of Northumbria - into the next century. However, as Alex Woolf points out, it would be a mistake to view the lordship as a "unitary empire", but instead a collection of lordships ruled by the same kindred, with only varying degrees of unity depending on the political circumstances of the moment and the charisma of individual leaders.
Rulers associated with the Uí Ímair include Sihtric Cáech, Ragnall ua Ímair, Gofraid ua Ímair and Ímar ua Ímair, probably grandsons of the eponymous Ímar. Possible great-grandsons include Amlaíb mac Gofraid, Amlaíb Cuarán, Gofraid mac Sitriuc, Blácaire mac Gofrith, Ragnall mac Gofrith and Aralt mac Sitriuc. Recorded sons of Ímar may include Sitriuc (died 896), Sichfrith (died 888) and Bárid (died 881). Other Uí Ímair: Godred Crovan, Ivar of Waterford, Amlaíb mac Sitriuc.
Sons of Amlaíb Cuarán were Glúniairn and Sigtrygg SilkbeardDescendant nobilityOlaf, a son of Sigtrygg Silkbeard, became an ancestor of the Kings of Gwynedd, through his daughter Ragnhild, the mother of Gruffydd ap Cynan.
Scottish descendants of the Uí Ímair include the famous Somerleds (Clan Donald and Clan MacDougall), through another Ragnhild, a daughter of Olaf I Godredsson. They would become the Lords of the Isles.
Among the modern Irish families once associated with the Uí Ímair are the less widely known O'Donovans, and they descend from a daughter of Ivar of Limerick, wife of Donndubhán mac Cathail (Todd 1867, based on published pedigrees). This family, from the ancient local dynasty of Cairbre Eva, within the larger kingdom of Uí Fidgenti, is known to have intermarried with the Danes of Limerick for two centuries (Begley 1906), and was also associated with the Uí Ímair of Waterford for a period. A son of Ivar of Waterford was called Donndubhán, and so it is likely that a sister or daughter of the former was the mother, of him and possibly other sons. They are briefly mentioned by Clare Downham in her recent work (2007), but again see Todd (1867). The O'Donovan family is one of the only twenty or so Irish noble dynasties still in existence today.

The "Great Heathen Army", also known as the Great Army or the Great Danish Army, was a Viking army originating in Denmark which pillaged and conquered much of England in the late 9th century. The army was exceptionally large for the period, probably containing several thousand fighters. It consisted of various smaller groups which would rarely fight together, and sometimes targeted each other.
The term "Great Heathen Army" was used by Anglo-Saxon chroniclers compiling the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Much of the evidence for the army comes from these works, and as they start the year on September 1, many of the events associated with it are often said to have occurred what appears to be a year later. This article uses the Gregorian calendar throughout.
The origins of the Army can be seen in the band of Viking warriors who attacked Paris in 845, and remained permanently in the region from 850, repeatedly sacking Rouen and various smaller towns.
Having gained experience across Europe, the army arrived in Britain in late 865, landing in East Anglia. Under the command of Halfdan Ragnarsson and Ivar the Boneless, with the support of Ubbe Ragnarsson, it aimed to conquer and settle England. This may have been in response to the death of their father, Ragnar Lodbrok, at the hands of Ælla of Northumbria in 865.
In late 866, it conquered the Kingdom of Northumbria, followed in 870 by the Kingdom of East Anglia. In 871, the Great Summer Army arrived from Scandinavia. This reinforced the Great Heathen Army, enabling it in 874 to conquer Mercia. The same year, a considerable section settled in the conquered territories, followed by a further section in 877. Halfdan moved north to attack the Picts, while Guthrum emerged as the war leader in the south, and in 876 they were joined by further forces and won the Battle of Wareham. However, Alfred the Great fought back and eventually won victory over the army at the Battle of Ethandun in 878, achieving the Treaty of Wedmore.
The settlers from the army formed the Kingdom of York, which survived with several interruptions until the 950s.

3 comments:

  1. Very interesting even if Ragnar Lodbrok was not one of my 30th great grandfathers.

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  2. Ragnar Lodbrok Viking King of Norway Denmark) Sigurdsson 30thGGF... (750 - 845)
    30th great-grandfather
    Sigurd II Snake In Eye King of Denmark, Jutland and East Anglia Ragnarsson 29thGGF (786 - 853)
    son of Ragnar Lodbrok Viking King of Norway Denmark) Sigurdsson 30thGGF...
    Hardeknud "Harthacanute" King of Denmark Sigurdsson 28thGGF (846 - 899)
    son of Sigurd II Snake In Eye King of Denmark, Jutland and East Anglia Ragnarsson 29thGGF
    GORM III "GEVA" de Gammel "the Old", 1st King of Denmark Hardeknudsson 27thGGF (860 - 930)
    son of Hardeknud "Harthacanute" King of Denmark Sigurdsson 28thGGF
    Harald II Herbastus Bluetooth Gormsson (King of Denmark) DE CREPON 25th or 26thGGF. (911 - 986)
    son of GORM III "GEVA" de Gammel "the Old", 1st King of Denmark Hardeknudsson 27thGGF
    Wevia Duceline (M. De Harcourt) de CREPON 25thGGM... (970 - 1037)
    daughter of Harald II Herbastus Bluetooth Gormsson (King of Denmark) DE CREPON 25th or 26thGGF.
    Humphrey (Vielles) de Vielles Beaumont 24thGGF (980 - 1044)
    son of Wevia Duceline (M. De Harcourt) de CREPON 25thGGM...
    Roger De Beaumont 23rdGGF (1015 - 1094)
    son of Humphrey (Vielles) de Vielles Beaumont 24thGGF
    Robert de Meulan Beaumont 22ndGGF (1050 - 1118)
    son of Roger De Beaumont 23rdGGF
    Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester de Beaumont 21stGGF (1104 - 1168)
    son of Robert de Meulan Beaumont 22ndGGF
    Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester Hamilton 20thGGF (1135 - 1190)
    son of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester de Beaumont 21stGGF
    Sir William de Hamilton (Hameldon) 19thGGF. 1st to use Hamilton name. (1160 - 1239)
    son of Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester Hamilton 20thGGF
    Gilbert Fitz William de Hameldone 18thGGF (1239 - 1293)
    son of Sir William de Hamilton (Hameldon) 19thGGF. 1st to use Hamilton name.
    Sir Walter 1st Lord of Cadzow FitzGilbert 17thGGF (1274 - 1346)
    son of Gilbert Fitz William de Hameldone 18thGGF
    David FitzWalter 16thGGF (1300 - 1378)
    son of Sir Walter 1st Lord of Cadzow FitzGilbert 17thGGF
    Sir John 1st Lord Hamilton, 4th Baron of Cadzow Hamilton 15thGGF (1371 - 1402)
    son of David FitzWalter 16thGGF
    James I Hamilton 5th Baron Of Cadzow connection Princess Diana) 14thGGF (1398 - 1441)
    son of Sir John 1st Lord Hamilton, 4th Baron of Cadzow Hamilton 15thGGF
    James II Baron of Cadzow 1st Lord Hamilton 13thGGF (1423 - 1479)
    son of James I Hamilton 5th Baron Of Cadzow connection Princess Diana) 14thGGF
    Sir James III Hamilton 2nd Lord Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arron 12thGGF. (1475 - 1529)
    son of James II Baron of Cadzow 1st Lord Hamilton 13thGGF
    James Hamilton 2nd Earl of Arran 11thGGF (1515 - 1575)
    son of Sir James III Hamilton 2nd Lord Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arron 12thGGF.
    Claude Hamilton 1st Lord Paisley 10thGGF (1543 - 1621)
    son of James Hamilton 2nd Earl of Arran 11thGGF
    James 1st Earl of Abercorn 2nd Lord Paisley Hamilton 9thGGF (1575 - 1618)
    son of Claude Hamilton 1st Lord Paisley 10thGGF
    George 1st Baronet of Donalong and Nenegh Hamilton 8thGGF (1610 - 1680)
    son of James 1st Earl of Abercorn 2nd Lord Paisley Hamilton 9thGGF
    Lord Alexander Hamilton 7thGGF (1650 - 1730)
    son of George 1st Baronet of Donalong and Nenegh Hamilton 8thGGF
    William Hamilton 6thGGF (1700 - 1786)
    son of Lord Alexander Hamilton 7thGGF
    Claud Hamilton 5thGGF (1717 - 1798)
    son of William Hamilton 6thGGF
    Sergeant John P. Sr. Hamilton 4thGGF (1744 - 1802)
    son of Claud Hamilton 5thGGF
    Samuel Hamilton 3rdGGF (1774 - 1832)
    son of Sergeant John P. Sr. Hamilton 4thGGF
    Lemuel M. Lewis Hamilton 2ndGGF (1808 - 1870)
    son of Samuel Hamilton 3rdGGF
    Samuel S. (H.) Hamilton GGF (1856 - 1927)
    son of Lemuel M. Lewis Hamilton 2ndGGF
    Joseph Benedict Hamilton GF (1892 - 1978)
    son of Samuel S. (H.) Hamilton GGF
    William Orval Hamilton (1924 - 2000)
    son of Joseph Benedict Hamilton GF
    And Michael D Hamilton (1954 - )
    son of William Orval Hamilton.
    And Roldan Hamilton (2011 - )
    son of Michael Dwayne Hamilton.

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  3. So fantastic!
    mikedhamilton@aol.com

    ReplyDelete