Saturday, 19 September 2009

Character in Bernrad Cornwell'sSaxon Series: Aldhelm

Saint Aldhelm (Old English: Ealdhelm; c. 639-25 May 709), Abbot of Malmesbury Abbey, Bishop of Sherborne, Latin poet and Anglo-Saxon literature scholar, was born before the middle of the 7th century. He is said to have been the son of Kenten, who was of the royal house of Wessex. He was certainly not, as Aldhelm's early biographer Faritius asserts, the brother of King Ine.

Stained glass window showing Aldhelm, installed in Malmesbury Abbey in 1928 in memory of Rev. Canon C. D. H. McMillan, Vicar of Malmesbury from 1907 to 1919

Early life and education
Aldhelm received his first education in the school of an Irish scholar and monk, Máeldub (also Maildubh, Maildulf or Meldun) (died c. 675), who had settled in the British stronghold of Bladon (or Bladow) on the site of the town called Mailduberi, Maldubesburg, Meldunesburg, etc., and finally Malmesbury, after him.

Pope Vitalian

In 668, Pope Vitalian sent Theodore of Tarsus to be Archbishop of Canterbury. At the same time the African scholar Hadrian, became abbot of St Augustine's at Canterbury. Aldhelm was one of his disciples, for he addresses him as the 'venerable preceptor of my rude childhood.' He must, nevertheless, have been thirty years of age when he began to study with Hadrian. His studies included Roman law, astronomy, astrology, the art of reckoning and the difficulties of the calendar. He learned, according to the doubtful statements of the early lives, both Greek and Hebrew. He certainly introduces many Latinized Greek words into his works.
Ill health compelled him to leave Canterbury, and he returned to Malmesbury Abbey, where he was a monk under Máeldub for fourteen years, dating probably from 661, and including the period of his studies with Hadrian.

Malmesbury Abbey

Abbot of Malmesbury
When Máeldub died, Aldhelm was appointed in 675, according to a charter of doubtful authenticity cited by William of Malmesbury, by Leuthere, Bishop of Winchester (671-676), to succeed to the direction of the monastery, of which he became the first abbot. Aldhelm introduced the Benedictine rule, and secured the right of the election of the abbot to the monks themselves. The community at Malmesbury increased, and Aldhelm was able to found two other monasteries as centres of learning, at Frome, Somerset and at Bradford on Avon, Wiltshire.

The Tithe Barn at Bradford on Avon

The little church of St Lawrence at Bradford on Avon dates back to his time, and may safely be regarded as his. At Malmesbury he built a new church to replace Máeldub's modest building, and obtained considerable grants of land for the monastery.

Wall plaque at the Catholic Church of St Aldhelm, Malmesbury. The inscription says 'St Aldhelm 639-709, Abbot of Malmesbury and Bishop of Sherborne, Latin Poet and Ecclesiastical Writer.'

Contemporary reputation
His fame as a scholar spread to other countries. Artwil, the son of an Irish king, submitted his writings for Aldhelm's approval, and Cellanus, an Irish monk from Peronne, was one of his correspondents.

The beast symbol used on Aldfrith's coinage

Aldhelm was the first Anglo-Saxon, so far as we know, to write in Latin verse, and his letter to Acircius (Aldfrith or Eadfrith, king of Northumbria) is a treatise on Latin prosody for the use of his countrymen. In this work he included his most famous productions, 101 riddles in Latin hexameters. Each of them is a complete picture, and one of them runs to 83 lines.
That his merits as a scholar were early recognized in his own country is shown by the encomium of Bede (Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum 5.18), who speaks of him as a wonder of erudition. His fame reached Italy, and at the request of Pope Sergius I he paid a visit to Rome, of which, however, there is no notice in his extant writings. On his return, bringing with him privileges for his monastery and a magnificent altar, he received a popular ovation.

Easter controversy
He was deputed by a synod of the church in Wessex to remonstrate with the Britons of Dumnonia (Devon and Cornwall) on the Easter controversy. British Christians followed a unique system of calculation for the date of Easter and also bore a distinctive tonsure; these customs are generally associated with the practice known as Celtic Christianity. Aldhelm wrote a long and rather acrimonious letter to king Geraint of Dumnonia (Geruntius) achieving ultimate agreement with Rome.

Bishop of Sherborne
In 705, or perhaps earlier, Hædde, bishop of Winchester, died, and the diocese was divided into two parts. Sherborne was the new see, of which Aldhelm reluctantly became the first bishop in 705. He wished to resign the abbey of Malmesbury which he had governed for thirty years, but yielding to the remonstrances of the monks he continued to direct it until his death. He was now an old man, but he showed great activity in his new functions. The cathedral church which he built at Sherborne, though replaced later by a Norman church, is described by William of Malmesbury. In his capacity as bishop, he displayed a great deal of energy. This included going into public places where he would sing hymns and passages from the gospels interspersed with bits of clowning to draw attention to his message.

Tithe Barn, Manor Farm, Doulting

Death and veneration
Aldhelm was on his rounds in his diocese when he died in the church of Doulting on 25 May 709. The body was taken to Malmesbury, and crosses were set up by his friend, Egwin, Bishop of Worcester, at the various stopping-places. He was buried in the church of St Michael at Malmesbury Abbey. His biographers relate miracles due to his sanctity worked during his lifetime and at his shrine.

The cape in Dorset commonly known as St Alban's Head is more properly called St. Aldhelm's Head in his honour.

He was revered as a saint after his death, with his feast day being celebrated on 25 May.

Aldhelm wrote in elaborate and grandiloquent and very difficult Latin, which became the dominant Latin style for centuries, though eventually came to be regarded as barbarous. His works became standard school texts in monastic schools, until his influence declined around the time of the Norman Conquest.

J.P. Migne

Aldhelm's collected works were edited by Rudolf Ehwald, Aldhelmi opera (Berlin, 1919). An earlier edition by J.A. Giles, Patres eccl. Angl. (Oxford, 1844) was reprinted by JP Migne in his Patrologiae Cursus, vol. 89 (1850).

De Laude Virginitatis (the prose De Virginitate), a Latin treatise on virginity addressed to the nuns of the double monastery at Barking, is Aldhelm's best-known work. After a long preface extolling the merits of virginity, he commemorates a great number of male and female saints. Aldhelm later wrote a shorter, poetic version. Epistola ad Acircium (sive Liber de septenario, et de metris, aenigmatibus ac pedum regulis), dedicated to King Aldfrith of Northumbria (r. 685-704/5). The chief source of his Epistola ad Acircium (ed. A. Mai, Class. Auct. vol. V) is Priscian. The acrostic introduction gives the sentence, 'Aldhelmus cecinit millenis versibus odas,' whether read from the initial or final letters of the lines. After an address to King Aldfrith, the letter consists of three treatises:

De septenario, treatise on the number seven in arithmology.
De metris, treatise on metre, including the Enigmata.
De pedum regulis, didactive treatise on metrical feet, such as iambs and spondees.

St. Sergius

Other Letters. Correspondents include Bishop Leuthere, Hadrian, King Geraint of Dumnonia, Eahfrid, Cellanus, Sergius and Aldhelm’s pupils Wihtfrith and Æthelwald, who was responsible for part of the Carmen rhythmicum.

St. Boniface from the book "Little Pictorial Lives of the Saints"

The letter to King Geraint of Dumnonia, was supposed to have been destroyed by the Britons (William of Malmesbury, Gesta Pontificum, p. 361), but was discovered with others of Aldhelm's in the correspondence of St Boniface, archbishop of Mainz. A long letter to Eahfrid, a scholar just returned from Ireland (first printed in Usher, Veterum Epistt. Hiber. Sylloge, 1632), is of interest as casting light on the relations between English and Irish scholars.
Carmen de virginitate (the poetic De Virginitate). Aldhelm wrote a shorter, poetic version of De Laude Virginitatis, which closes with a battle of the virtues against the vices, the De octo principalibus vitiis (first printed by Delrio, Mainz, 1601). The two works are what is sometimes called an opus geminatum or "twin work". Carmen rhythmicum, rhythmic poem which describes a travel through western England and the way a wooden church was affected by a storm. Carmina ecclesiastica (modern title), i.e. a number of Latin tituli designed for inscription on a church or altar.
They are:
(1) In Basilica Sanctorum Petri et Pauli, for a church dedicated to St Peter and St Paul, possibly the church which Aldhem founded at Malmesbury,
(2) In Basilica Beatae Mariae Semper Virginis, St Mary's Church, possibly also at Malmesbury, (3) In Ecclesia Mariae a Bugge Extructa, for the church built by Bugga, that is Eadburh of Minster-in-Thanet, a royal lady of the house of Wessex,
(4) the twelve tituli known collectively as In Duodecim Apostolorum Aris and
(5) In sancti Matthiae Apostoli Ecclesia. Enigmata, 100 (hexa)metrical riddles, included in the Epistola ad Acircium for purposes of illustration. For these riddles, Aldhelm's model was the collection known as Symposii Aenigmata ("The Riddles of Symphosius").

Stained glass window showing William, installed in Malmesbury Abbey in 1928 in memory of Rev. Canon C. D. H. McMillan, Vicar of Malmesbury from 1907 to 1919.

Lost works
According to William of Malmesbury, Aldhelm also wrote poetry in Old English, and set his own compositions to music, but none of his songs, which were still popular in the time of Alfred, have come down to us. Finding his people slow to come to church, he is said to have stood at the end of a bridge singing songs in the vernacular, thus collecting a crowd to listen to exhortations on sacred subjects

Editions and translations
Ehwald, Rudolf (ed.). Aldhelmi Opera. MGH Scriptores. Auctores antiquissimi 15. Berlin, 1919. Scans available from the Digital MGH.
Aldhelm: The Poetic Works. Trans. Michael Lapidge and James L. Rosier. Boydell & Brewer, 1984. ISBN 0859911462.
Aldhelm: The Prose Works. Trans. Michael Lapidge and Michael Herren. D. S. Brewer, 1979. ISBN 0859910415.
The Riddles of Aldhelm. Text and translation by James Hall Pittman. Yale University Press, 1925.
Holweck, F.G.. A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints. St. Louis, MO: B. Herder Book Co., 1924. Powicke, F. Maurice and E. B. Fryde. Handbook of British Chronology. 2nd. ed. London: Royal Historical Society, 1961.
Walsh, Michael. A New Dictionary of Saints: East and West. London: Burns & Oates, 2007. ISBN 0-8601-2438-X
Lapidge, Michael. "The Career of Aldhelm." Anglo-Saxon England 36 (2007): 15-69.
Orchard, Andy. The Poetic Art of Aldhelm. Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 052145090X.

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