Wednesday, 2 September 2009

Scandinavian Jorvik / York

Between 865-874, groups of Vikings and Danes under Ivarr the Boneless and his brother, Halfdan, swept across England from the north and east, conquering Northumbria and East Anglia and large swathes of eastern Mercia. Not long afterwards, the acknowledged Danish leader, Guthrum, assumed the title of king of East Anglia. The first king of Scandinavian York was Halfdan himself, ruling all of modern Yorkshire, Lancashire, and Cumbria. Records for this kingdom are fairly poor, especially in comparison with those of Wessex for the period, so a certain amount of educated guesswork is required to established a full sequence of events.
In 940, the kingdom gained (or regained) the 'Five Boroughs' of Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, Lincoln, Leicestershire, and Stamford (the area around Spalding, always a separate region since it had been settled by the Spaldingas tribe of Angles in the fifth century, later Holland, and now South Holland, within Lincolnshire).
875 - 877 Halfdan King of the Viking kingdom of Dublin (873-883).
877 - 883 Halfdan is expelled from York. There follows an apparent interregnum, but the fact that the next king, Guthfrith, does not claim the title until the year of Halfdan's death suggests that the kingdom's founder retains nominal rule of York, if only from Dublin. Even without a ruler in York itself, the Vikings there retain governorship of former Deira (southern Northumbria) and the vassalage of Bernicia (northern Northumbria, with a focus of power in Bamburgh).
879 Once the Danelaw is established by the Peace of Wedmore in 878, Guthrum formalises his rule of East Anglia. A Danish kingdom is founded there to exist alongside the similarly-formed Scandinavian kingdom at York.
883 - 895 Guthfrith / Guthred Converted to Christianity. Ruled until 24 August.
883 Guthfrith is the son of Hardacnut, sold into slavery as a boy and claimed by Abbot Eadred of Carlisle as the next king of York after a vision in which he is visited by Saint Cuthbert (founder of the monastery at Carlisle). Guthfrith's close relations with Carlisle force the vassal region of Bernicia to accept the direct control of York, although locals still rule in the king's name at Bamburgh.

886 Formal recognition is made in the Treaty of Alfred and Guthrum of the Danish and Anglo-Saxon spheres of control (the Danelaw, which is controlled in the south from East Anglia, and Wessex, which incorporates half of Mercia, south and west of Watling Street). The treaty defines the boundaries of both kingdoms and makes provision for peaceful relations between the two peoples.
895 - 899 Siefred / Sigferth
899 Knutr / Cnut Possible joint king (895-899).
c.899 Æthelwald, the son of Edward the Elder, is driven from Wessex and takes refuge in York where the Danes receive him as king.
900 Around this time, perhaps during a short period in which the kingdom is weakened by the death of two kings in the same year, the Scandinavians appear to lose control of Cumbria in the north-west to the British kingdom of Strathclyde. However, they may retain some control of the area around the mouth of the River Mersey, or at least some settlements seem to survive there.
900 - 905 Æthelwald / Æthelwold Son of Edward the Elder of Wessex.
902 During Æthelwald's reign, York gains full control of Ynys Manau from Dublin and rules it directly.
905 - 910 Halfdan II / Healfden Brothers and co-rulers - killed by the invading Saxon army.
905 - 910 Eowils / Ecwils / Eogils 910 Ingwer / Ivarr
910 - 918 A Saxon army invades the kingdom and Halfdan II, Eowils, and Ingwer are all killed at the Battle of Tettenhall. There is an apparent interregnum in the kingship, but it still seems likely that Scandinavians rule York following the Saxon victory, although the high reeve of Bamburgh has a strong claim to the throne and may even rule until his death in 913. His son Ealdred may succeed his possible rule of York.
917 - 918 The borough of Derby is taken from York in 917 by the Lady of the Mercians, suggesting that there is still a Scandinavian or other independent ruler in control. In 918 the people of Leicester submit without battle, and York promises to accept Aethelflaed as overlord. Although she dies before this can be effected, her brother, Edward, king of Wessex, succeeds her and probably attempts to enforce the promise. At the same time (917 or 918), the Danish kingdom of East Anglia falls to Wessex, leaving York the only Norse-dominated centre in the country's mainland.
918/919 The powerful Norse-Irish dynasty of Ivarr the Boneless seizes control of York from Dublin, potentially destroying the slow Anglo-Saxon recovery of the region. The high reeve of Bamburgh, Ealdred I, is driven back into his own lands, supporting the suggestion that a greater level of authority has been enjoyed by Bamburgh until this date.
919 - 921 Ragnald I / Ragnall King of Dublin.
920 - 921 Ragnald accepts Edward, king of Wessex, as father and lord, beginning a period of close relations between the two kingdoms. York also allows local, client, kings to govern in Ynys Manau.
921 - 927 Sihtric Caoch (the Blind) King of Dublin. Converted to Christianity & m Athelstan's sister.
927 Guthfrith of Dublin Brother. King of Dublin. Defeated and expelled by Athelstan.
927 Olaf / Anlaf I Guthfrithson Son. King of Dublin. Expelled by Athelstan.
927 - 939 Athelstan of Wessex invades Northumbria and secures control of it with the support of the high reeves of Bamburgh, expelling the hopeful claimant, Olaf son of Guthfrith. The West Saxon king rules York as part of a united England until his death on 27 October 939. The is the very first time that a southern king rules unquestioningly north of the Humber.
934 - 937 The grand alliance including the Scots, Northumbrian Danes at York, Dublin Danes, and the Welsh of Gwynedd and Cumbria, mass their forces north of the Humber in a bold attempt to destroy Athelstan of Wessex. The plan fails, however, when the West Saxons and Mercians of the south destroy the alliance at the Battle of Brunanburh in 937.
939 With Athelstan's death a fifteen year struggle for the future of an independent Northumbrian kingdom begins. Many Northumbrian leaders would rather be ruled by an integrated Danish nobility than the English south of the Humber.
939/40 - 942 Olaf / Anlaf I Guthfrithson / Amblaib Regained the throne.
940 The Northumbrians conquer (or reconquer) the Five Boroughs region of the former Mercian Danelaw, comprising towns such as Derby, Leicester, Lincoln and Doncaster.
942 The period around Olaf's death sees York lose control of Ynys Manau to Dublin, and the Five Boroughs are re-conquered by Edmund of Wessex.
942 - 943 Olaf / Anlaf II Sihtricson (Cuaran) Olaf of Ireland. Ruled until summer 943.
942 - 943 Ragnall Son of Guthfrith. Co-ruler. Became king in 943. Killed? 942 - 943 Olaf II previously had to give way to his more powerful uncle and his cousin, and wait for their demise - plus the death of Athelstan - before he can sit on the throne. However, Olaf is not so effective as his cousin, and is soon usurped, and then defeated by Athelstan's brother, Edmund, king of Wessex. He returns to Dublin.
943 - 944 Ragnald II Guthfrithson / Ragnall Former co-ruler.
944 Olaf / Anlaf II Sihtricson (Cuaran) Restored. Defeated by Edmund of Wessex.
944 - 946 The kingdom is ruled by Edmund of Wessex.
946 - 947 The kingdom is ruled by Eadred of Wessex. The Northumbrians officially submit to him in 947, but within a few months they have invited Scandinavian adventurer Eric Bloodaxe to ascend the Northumbrian throne late in the year.
947 - 948 Eric Bloodaxe Former King of Norway (930-934).
948 Eadred's burning of Ripon sees Eric Bloodaxe being rejected by the Northumbrian witan, despite him winning a battle against part of Eadred's army. Eric sails away to adventures overseas and Eadred of Wessex is acknowledged king of the Northumbrians. The subsequent reign of Anlaf Sihtricson, invited back by the Northumbrians in 949, can only be explained in terms of Eadred preferring him over Eric, as long as he (probably) submitted to Eadred.
949 - 952 Olaf / Anlaf II Sihtricson (Cuaran) Restored. Probably submitted to Eadred.
952 ? Dublin-based claimant, briefly recognised.
952 - 954 Eric Bloodaxe Restored by the Northumbrians. 954 A coalition of northern forces tributary to Eadred defeats Eric in battle, due in no small part to the allegiance of the high reeves of Bamburgh. Northumbria falls under the rule of the kings of England, to the dismay of the independent-minded Northumbrians. The new Earldom is administered by Oswulf, high reeve of Bamburgh.

Earls of YorkAD 954 - 1041
Oswulf, high reeve of Bamburgh, was handed the duties of governing the important and powerful region of York, once it had been conquered by the king of what was now a fully united kingdom of England. The high reeves had played an important part in the final English conquest of York, supporting the Wessex-based Saxon kings from 927, but they had also held their own claim to the throne of York since the fall of the kings of Northumbria. They may well have ruled in York between 910-918, although this is very hard to establish with the available evidence.
954 - 963 Oswulf / Osulf High reeve of Bamburgh (930-963).
955 - 959 There is a successional rift between King Edred's two sons, Edwy and Edgar. The latter takes control of Mercia and Northumbria, while Edwy rules in the south until his death in 959. Edgar then seizes complete control and becomes the second king of England.
963 - 975 Oslac of Northumbria Exiled.
963 - 995 Waltheof I High reeve of Bamburgh (963-995).
995 - 1016 Uchtred the Bold High reeve of Bamburgh.
1016 After Uchtred, the high reeves of Bamburgh lose their position of power in York as the arrival of the new Danish kings of England changes the political balance of power in the country.
1016 - 1023 Eric of Hlathir / Eirik Hakonson
1023 - 1031 The title briefly lapses while England is ruled by Canute.
1031 - 1055 Siward / Sigurd 'the Stout' Earl of all Northumbria from 1041.
1041 Siward governs Bernicia without any local officials under him, fully uniting north and south Northumbria under one 'ruler' and ending the line of high reeves of Bamburgh, his main source of competition. Instead, Siward is dominant as earl of Northumbria.
1066 A year after Earl Tostig of Northumbria flees the country, Harold's army defeats an attempted invasion of England by the Norwegian king, Harald Hadrada, who has sided with Harold's rebellious younger brother, Earl Tostig. Almost immediately afterwards, Harold has to march his tired army south to face a second invasion by William, duke of Normandy. Harold is narrowly defeated at Hastings on 14 October, and the Anglo-Saxon line of kings comes to an end. Northumbria (York and Bamburgh) is broken up into the earldoms of Northumberland and York. Unfortunately, there seem to be no records concerning any earls of York until 1138.
The Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066 by Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831-1892)
1138 - 1179 William le Gros is created earl of York by the Norman king of England, Stephen. The title becomes extinct again upon William's death in 1179.
1138 - 1179 William le Gros 1190 - 1218 The title is briefly resurrected for Otto by the Plantagenet king, Richard I, but again becomes extinct by 1218 at the latest, which is when Otto dies. It is also possible that he hands the title back when he becomes count of Poitou.
1190 - 1218 Otto Otto IV of Brunswick, HRE (1198-1212).
1348 The title duke of York is created for Edmund of Langley, the fourth surviving son of Plantagenet king Edward III. Although there are frequent breaks, it becomes traditional for the English monarch to hand this title to his second son, and this practise continues in use to the present day.

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